A progressive idea plays an important role in socio-historical progress. When the popular masses are guided by a progressive idea, they can be a powerful creator of history. Of course, it does not mean that all progressive ideas play the same role in socio-historical development. Their role is different according to how they represent the aspirations and interests of the popular masses and how correctly they show the path which must be followed in struggle. There were ideas which reflected the aspirations of progressive classes of society even before the emergence of the working class. But due to their historical and class limitations the trends of thought in the past age could not but be hampered in the role they played in social development. The revolutionary ideas of the working class alone can correctly reflect the demands of the time and the aspirations of the popular masses and give a powerful stimulus to socio-historical development by inspiring the people to wage the revolutionary struggle.
The revolutionary ideas of the working class are originated by distinguished leaders. It can be said that the history of the communist movement spanning a hundred and scores of years is a history of working-class leaders creating and developing revolutionary ideas, a history in which these ideas have been applied to transform the world. In the mid-19th century Marx and Engels propounded Marxism. Thus they highlighted the historical mission and a path of liberation that had to be followed by the working class that appeared on the arena of struggle and stimulated the fight against capital, ushering in the rise of the international communist movement. Lenin developed Marxism and advanced Leninism in accordance with the new historical conditions whereby capitalism had entered the phase of imperialism, with the result that he inspired the working class and the rest of the people to the struggle to destroy imperialist strongholds and to achieve freedom and liberation. This marked the beginning of transition from capitalism to socialism.
The Great Leader created the great Juche idea after acquiring a deep insight into the requirements of a new era when the oppressed and humiliated masses of the people became masters of their own destiny. Thus he developed their struggle for Chajusong onto a higher plane and opened up the age of Juche, a new era in the development of human history. The revolutionary idea of the working class emerges as the reflection of the mature demand of history and the revolution in their development. When the Great Leader embarked on the road of revolution, a new development was taking place in the struggle of the working class and the popular masses against exploitation and oppression. On the world arena, the influence of socialism, which had won its first victory, grew strong, and the revolutionary struggle of the working class and the liberation struggle of the peoples in colonies and semi-colonies were intensified sharply. In an attempt to stop the revolutionary advance of the masses and weather the serious political and economic crises they were passing through, the imperialists further increased their plunder and oppression of the people. In many countries contradictions and antagonism between revolution and counter-revolution were intensified, and the masses of the people whose sovereign rights had been trampled down for a long time rose up in a struggle for their class and national liberation. A new age was approaching, in which the revolutionary movement made progress in a broad and diversified way on a worldwide scale.
In order to advance the revolution under the new historical conditions, the working class and the people of every country, conscious of being the masters, had to solve all problems in accordance with their actual situation. In our country, this was a particularly important matter because of the peculiarities of historical development and the complexity and arduousness of the revolution. The Korean revolution demanded more urgently that the popular masses hew out the path of revolution in an independent and creative manner.
The Juche idea was created on the basis of such a practical requirement of the Korean revolution. The revolution is a struggle to meet the masses' desire for independence by enlisting their strength. It is a struggle of the masses to free themselves. When they are armed with the revolutionary idea and united into an organized political force, the masses can emerge victorious in the revolution. The duty of revolutionaries is to go among the popular masses, masters of the revolution, to educate, organize and inspire them to a struggle. The revolutionary forces too, should be trained from among the masses and all problems arising in the revolutionary struggle should likewise be resolved in reliance on their wisdom and strength.
However, the communists and nationalists who were allegedly engaged in the national-liberation movement in our country in the 1920's gave no thought to the need to go among the masses to educate, organize, and arouse them into waging a revolutionary struggle. But divorced from the masses they were only engrossed in the scramble for hegemony and empty talks. They did not unite the masses but divided them by factional stride. In the first years of his revolutionary struggle, the leader saw through their mistakes and took a road different from theirs, the genuinely revolutionary road which led him to be among the masses and to rely on them in the struggle. He elucidated the truth that the masters of the revolution, are the masses of the people and that when one goes among them to educate and mobilize them one will be able to register in the revolution. This is one of the starting points of the Juche idea. The revolution in each country should be carried out responsibly by its own people, the masters, in an independent manner, and in a creative way suitable to its specific conditions. Chajusong and creativeness are the inherent requirements of a revolutionary movement, the communist movement.
The Korean revolution which opened the age of Juche could not advance even a step forward unless it was conducted in an independent and creative way from the start. It was a difficult and complex revolution which had to deal with the tasks of the anti-imperialist, national-liberation revolution, with formidable Japanese imperialism as the target, and those of the anti-feudal, democratic revolution simultaneously. It was an arduous revolution which had to hew out an untrodden path. What is worse, a strong tendency towards flunkeyism appeared in those days within our anti-Japanese national-liberation movement and communist movement to hamper the advance of the revolution. The nationalists and self-styled Marxists followed the evil practices of flunkeyism and factional strife which had resulted in the country's ruin in the past. They did not try to carry out the revolution by their own initiative but dreamed of achieving independence by depending on foreign forces. At that time, those who were allegedly engaged in the communist movement formed their own party groups and called frequently at the Commenter to gain its recognition. And they endeavored to imitate mechanically established theories and experience of others, without taking into consideration the historical conditions and specific realities in our country where a colonial and semi-feudal society was in existence. In this way, flunkeyism and dogmatism were very serious obstacles in the way of revolution.
Drawing on serious lessons derived from such flunkeyism and dogmatism, the leader clarified the truth that a revolution should be carried out not by anyone's approval or instruction but by one's own conviction and on one's own responsibility and that all problems arising in the revolution should be solved in an independent and creative way. This is another starting point of the Juche idea. As stated previously, the Great Leader advanced the Juche idea, a new revolutionary idea, on the basis of practical experience and lessons gained in the revolutionary struggle.
The Great Leader has conducted ideological and theoretical activities invariably based on the revolutionary practice, and developed and enriched the revolutionary idea and theories in the course of giving answers to problems arising in the revolutionary practice. Only on the basis of revolutionary practice can one apply existing theories in accordance with the interests of the revolution and actual conditions in one's own country and search for new truths and create new ideas and theories. In his early years of revolutionary activities, the leader was well versed in Marxism-Leninism. But he did not confine himself to applying Marxism-Leninism to the Korean revolution but pioneered a new phase of revolutionary theory from a steadfast Juche-based standpoint and resolved the problems arising in the revolutionary practice from a unique angle. The leader discovered the truth of Juche idea in the course of the struggle against bigoted nationalists and bogus Marxists, flunkeyists and dogmatists, while hewing out a new path for the revolution. Finally, he explained the principles of the Juche idea at the Meeting of Leading Personnel of the Young Communist League and the Anti-Imperialist Youth League held at Kalun in June 1930 and put forward a Juche-oriented line for the Korean revolution. This was a historical event which heralded the creation of the Juche idea and the birth of' the Juche-oriented revolutionary line. At the time of disorder when national reformism, "Left" and Right opportunism and all other unsound ideas were prevailing, the leader still in his teens gained an insight into the trend of the times, the desire of the people and the law of historical development expounded the truth of Juche and thus opened the road of independent development for our revolution.
The Juche idea has been perfected as the guiding idea of revolution in our age in the practice of the Korean revolution. The guiding idea of revolution cannot be made perfect by one effort at a moment. It emerges through the generalization of experience in the revolutionary struggle, on the basis of the conditions of the times and history; it becomes perfect as an integrated ideological and theoretical system when its truthfulness is verified and its content is enriched during the protracted struggle.
The Great Leader led to victory the revolutionary struggles at different stages and the work in all fields of politics, economy, culture and military affairs. In this course, he himself gained a wealth of precious experience and generalized it to steadily develop the Juche idea in a profound manner. The history of the leader, who has led the arduous Korean revolution for more than 50 years, is a history in which he created the Juche idea and perfected it as a unique ideological and theoretical system in the great revolutionary practice. As stated previously, the Juche idea emerged on the basis of the requirements of a new age when the masses of the people appeared as the masters of history and of a rich experience gained in the revolutionary struggle. So it has become the great guiding idea of revolution in our age.
Philosophical Principle of the Juche idea
The Juche idea is a new philosophical thought which centers on man. As the Great Leader said, the Juche idea is based on the philosophical principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything. The Juche idea raised the fundamental question of philosophy by regarding man as the main factor and elucidated the philosophical principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything. That man is the master of everything means that he is the master of the world and of his own destiny; that man decides everything means that he plays the decisive role in transforming the world and in shaping his destiny. The philosophical principle of the Juche idea is the principle of man-centered philosophy which explains man's position and role in the world. The leader made it clear that man is a social being with Chajusong, creativity and consciousness. Man, though material existence, is not a simple material being. He is the most developed material being, a special product of the evolution of the material world.
Man was already outstanding as he emerged from the world of nature. He exists and develops by cognizing and changing the world to make it serve him, whereas all other material lives maintain their existence through their subordination and adaptation to the objective world.
Man holds a special position and plays a special role as master of the world because he is a social being with Chajusong, creativity and consciousness. The leader gave a new philosophical conception of man by defining Chajusong, creativity and consciousness as the essential features of man, the social being. Chajusong, creativity and consciousness are man's social qualities which take shape and develop socially and historically. Man alone in the world lives and conducts activity in social relationship. He maintains his existence and achieves his aim only socially. Chajusong, creativity and consciousness are peculiar to man, the social being.
Man is a being with Chajusong, that is, an independent social being. Chajusong is an attribute of social man who is desirous of living and developing in an independent way as master of the world and his own destiny. On the strength of this quality, man throws off the fetters of nature, opposes social subjugation of all forms and puts everything at his own service.
Chajusong is the life and soul of man the social being. When Chajusong is referred to as man's life and soul, it means social and political integrity. Man has a physical life and also social and political integrity. The physical life is what keeps a man alive as biological organism; social and political integrity is what keeps him alive as social being. Man is a being with creativity, that is, a creative social being. Creativity is an attribute of social man who transforms the world and shapes his destiny purposefully and consciously. By virtue of his creativity, man transforms nature and society to be more useful and beneficial to him by changing the old and creating the new.
Creativity, like Chajusong, constitutes an essential quality of man, the social being. Chajusong finds expression mainly in man's position as master of the world; creativity is expressed mainly in man's role as transformer of the world. Man is a being with consciousness, that is, a conscious social being. Consciousness is an attribute of social man, which determines his entire Endeavour’s to understand and reshape the world and himself. Because he has consciousness man understands the world and the laws of its motion and development, reshapes and advances nature and society as he desires.
Consciousness guarantees the Chajusong and creativity of man, the social being, and ensures his purposeful cognition and practice. Chajusong, creativity and consciousness, after all, are what enable man to be superior to any other being and to be the most powerful being in the world, to approach the world not fatalistically but revolutionary, not passively but actively and to reshape the world not blindly but purposefully and consciously. Man, the social being, who has Chajusong, creativity and consciousness, is precisely the only dominator and remaker of the world.
Man cannot, of course, live outside the world; he lives and conducts his activity in the world. Nature is the object of man's labour and also is the material source of his life. Society is a community where people live and conduct activities. Natural environments and social conditions have a great effect on human activity. Whether natural environments are good or bad and, in particular whether the political and economic systems of a society are progressive or reactionary -- these factors may favorably affect human Endeavour to remake nature and develop society or limit and restrict that activity. But man does not merely adapt himself to environments and conditions. By his independent, creative and conscious activity, man continuously transforms nature and society, changing as he desires what does not meet his needs, and replacing what is outdated and reactionary with what is new and progressive. This is man's Endeavour and struggle to change and transform the world into one that serves man better.
The Juche idea established a man-centered outlook on the world by throwing a fresh light on the essential characteristics of man and his position and role in the world. It had already been known that the world consists of material and changes and develops as a result of the motion of material. The Juche idea gives a new world outlook by answering the question of who is the master that dominates nature and society and where is the force that transforms them. That the world is dominated and reshaped by man is a new viewpoint on the world in relation to man. The Juche idea shows a new viewpoint and attitude to the world, on the basis of man's position and role as master of the world.
The viewpoint and attitude to the world shown by the Juche idea are those with which the world is approached by focusing on man, the master of the world. Taking a man-centered attitude towards the world means approaching the world from the viewpoint of interests of man, the master of the world. The world should naturally be approached from this angle because man is the master of the world. Man understands and transforms the world in order to bring everything in the world to serve him. Man is the most precious being in the world, and his interests are more valuable than any others in the world. Everything in the world has its value only when it serves man. Therefore, approaching the world from the viewpoint of making it serve man better is an absolutely correct viewpoint and attitude to the world. Approaching the world by focusing on man means dealing with the change and development of the world mainly on the basis of the activity of man who transforms it.
Man is the most powerful being in the world, and man alone is capable of transforming the world. It is man and none of her that requires its transformation and performs this work. Man acts upon and transforms the world as he desires. drawing on the objective laws. The world is changed for the benefit of man only by his energetic activity, For this reason, it is an absolutely correct viewpoint and attitude to the world to approach its change and development from the standpoint of man's positive activity to transform nature and society purposefully and consciously to meet his own desire. The Juche viewpoint and attitude to the world are truly revolutionary in that they enable men to transform the world and shape their destiny independently, creatively and consciously, with a high degree of awareness that they are masters of the world and their own destiny. The Juche world outlook which is based on the philosophical principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything, is an absolutely correct outlook on the world in our time. As history advances, man's position and role as master of the world is strengthened, and the extent of people's domination over the world increases daily through their independent, creative and conscious struggle. In our time the masses of the people have emerged as true masters of the world, and through their struggle the world is being changed more and more to serve the masses. Today the position and role of the masses of the people as masters of the world are becoming more stronger than ever before. This reality proves more patently the validity and vitality of the principle of Juche philosophy that man is the master of everything and decides everything.
Socio-Historical Principles of the Juche idea
The Juche idea clarifies the laws of historical development and social revolution. This idea has thrown a fresh light on the fundamental principles of the social movement, the revolutionary movement of the working masses who create and develop history. The socio-historical principles elucidated by the Juche idea constitute a new socio-historical outlook, the Juche outlook on history.
a) The Masses of the People are the subject of Social History
The question of the subject of history is a basic question in understanding the development of society, the development of revolution, from the attitude and point of view of Juche. As the Great Leader instructed, the working masses are the subject of history and the motive force of social progress. History develops through the struggle of the masses to transform nature and society. That history develops precisely means that the position and role of the masses as the subject of history are enhanced.
The socio-historical movement has its own peculiar laws which are different from those of natural motion. Of course, the social movement has something in common with the natural movement in that it is also a motion of material. The social movement, too, is governed by the universal laws of the material world. But the social movement has its subject, whereas there is no such thing in the motion of nature. In nature the motion takes place spontaneously through the interaction of material elements which exist objectively. In contrast, the social movement is caused and developed by the volitional action and role of the subject. The subject of the social movement consists in the masses of the people. Without the masses there would be no social movement itself, nor would it be concefabie to talk about historical progress.
The masses of the people are the masters of revolution and construction and the decisive factor in transforming nature and developing society. The revolutionary struggle and construction work are undertakings for the very masses and of the masses themselves. The masses of the people undertake the revolution and construction for themselves in order to shape their destiny. It is the masses that want the revolution and construction, and it is also the masses that carry them out. They produce all social wealth by their hands, and transform the world and advance history by their struggle. But for the creative activity of the masses, the social change and progress would be inconceivable. Human history shows that the masses' wisdom and ability to understand and transform the world are unlimited, though the scope of the world created and changed by each of the generations is relatively limited.
The position of the masses grows stronger and their power increases through the transformation of nature and society. With the consolidation of their position and growth in their strength, their positive action on socio-historical progress increases. The subject of history is the working masses, not the reactionary exploiting classes. The working masses carve out and develop history, but the exploiting classes try to arrest and turn back the historical advance. All exploiting classes after all, constitute a reaction against history; they are the target of revolution. The whole course of the existence of class societies has been a history of sharp struggles between the creators of history and reaction against history between the masters of revolution and the targets of revolution, that is, between the working masses and the reactionary exploiting classes. Society has advanced and developed through these struggles.
Although they are the subject of history, the masses of the people do not hold the same position and play the same role in all urges and in all societies. In the class society, underlie of their social status and class relationship and their strength for a long time in the past, the working masses could not unite into a political force. Therefore, they were deprived of all rights, subjected to exploitation and oppression, by a handful of ruling class’s and denied their legitimate position as masters of society. Even in the exploiting society they created all material and cultural wealth by their own efforts, but they were unable to shape history in an independent manner, because they could not occupy the position of masters of society. Only by seizing state power and the means of production in their own hands and by establishing a socialist system can the working masses free themselves from exploitation and oppression and create history consciously as true masters of society and their own destiny.
In the socialist society the working masses undergo a radical change in their status and destiny, and their position and role are enhanced. This is due to the revolutionary leadership and struggle of the working class. The process of development of a socialist society under the leadership of the working class is the process of working-classizing the whole society. When the whole society is reshaped completely on the pattern of the advanced working class under its leadership, the position of the popular masses, the subject of history, would be remarkably stronger, and their role in pushing forward the historical progress and revolutionary development incomparably higher.
If they are to hold their position and fulfill their role as subject of history, the popular masses must be brought into contact with leadership. Only under correct leadership, would the masses, though creators of history are able to occupy the position and perform their role as subject of socio-historical development. The link between leadership and masses is a very important question especially in the revolutionary movement, the communist movement, which is carried out by the working class and the broad masses of other people. Without correct leadership the communist movement would not advance victoriously because this movement itself is a highly conscious and organized one involving a serious class struggle.
The question of leadership in this movement is precisely the question of leadership given by the party and the leader to the masses of the people. The working-class party is the general staff of the revolution, and the leader of the working class is the foremost leader of the revolution. How the masses are awakened to consciousness and organized in a revolutionary way and how they perform their revolutionary duties and historical mission, depend on whether or not they are given correct leadership by the party and the leader.
Only when they receive correct guidance from the party and the leader, would the working class and the masses of other people be able to vigorously develop the deep-going and complicated revolutionary struggle to transform nature and society, achieve national and class liberation, build a socialist, communist society successfully, and run it properly. As the Great Leader said, the masses of the people have now emerged as masters of history, masters of revolution and construction, and are transforming the world more and more as they desire. The working people including the working class are standing firmly in the central place of the historical development of our time. Hundreds of millions of people who have long suffered class and national oppression and exploitation are vigorously advancing on the road of sovereignty and independence and social progress and playing a greater role in shaping the destiny of humanity and the future of the world. Because of this grand forward movement of our time capitalism and imperialism, which has grown fat and on the blood and sweat of the working masses and lorded it over their destiny for centuries, is precipitating irreversibly into bankruptcy and towards its downfall, deep into the grave of history. The masses of the people who have become legitimate masters of their own destiny are transforming the world and creating a new history of mankind in accordance with their aspirations. This is the basic trend of modern history which no force can ever stop.
b) Human History is the History of the People’s Struggle for Chajusong
The history of human society is the history of the struggle of the popular masses to defend and realize Chajusong. The Great Leader said that all revolutionary struggles are struggles of the popular masses to defend their Chajusong.
Throughout the long history of human society people have ceaselessly struggled to free themselves from the fetters of society and nature. All the struggles to transform society, nature and man are struggles to defend and realize Chajusong for the masses of the people.
The struggle for social reform is an undertaking of the masses to provide themselves with social and political conditions for their independent life, free from class and national subjugation. If they are to live and act independently, people must destroy the outdated social system which tramples upon Chajusong. Only when they wipe out the old social institutions and set up a social system which provides people with Chajusong, will the masses of the people be able to become true masters of society and their destiny and lead an independent life.
The struggle to transform nature is an effort of the masses to create material conditions for an independent life, free from the bitters of nature. If people are to live and make progress. they must work to harness nature and produce material wealth. Only through the transformation and conquest of nature can they free themselves from its fetters and prepare material conditions for an independent life.
The struggle to transform man is t he struggle of the masses to create ideological and cultural conditions for an independent life, free from the shackles of outdated ideas and culture. Only when they are completely free from the shackles of outdated ideas and culture and acquire the consciousness of independence and sound culture, will people be able to hold their destiny firmly in their hands, reshape it, and live and act genuinely as independent beings.
The transformation of society, nature and people is the main elements of the masses' struggle for Chajusong. Man can realize Chajusong completely only when he is free from social bondage, natural fetters, and the shackles of outdated ideas and culture. The struggle for Chajusong should be carried out on a full scale in all spheres of social reform, natural transformation and human remolding. The primary question arising in the struggle of the popular masses for Chajusong is to realize Chajusong socially and politically.
Since man is a social being, Chajusong must first be guaranteed socially and politically. This is the key to man's freedom from natural fetters and also to his ideological and cultural development. As long as they are subjugatcd socially and politically, the masses of the people cannot adequately benefit from the productive forces, even if these are developed, nor can they be free from the bondage of reactionary ideas and culture.
The history of human society ever since its division into hostile classes has, above all, been a history of social revolutions to realize social and political Chajusong for the popular masses. Through social revolutions the masses have carved out their destiny and developed society. Owing to slilve revolts which were, so to speak. the first struggle in history of the exploited working masses for Chajusong, and to peasant struggles against feudalism in the Middle Ages, the slavery and the feudal system collapsed. That meant progress in the struggle of the working masses for Chajusong. But this was only a replacement or the chains of slavery with feudal fetters, which in turn were replaced with the yoke of capital, not the abolition of class domination and oppression itself. In the history of human society, capitalism is the last exploiting system which tramples upon the masses' aspirations and demand for Chajusong. It is a violently oppressive system which combines class domination with national oppresion. The liquidation of the capitalist system and establishment of a new socialist system mark a historic turning point in the development of the revolutionary struggle for Chajusong. With the establishment of the socialist system, all exploiting classes and institutions which trample upon the aspirations and demands of the masses for Chajusong, are abolished, and the masses are provided with the necessary conditions which enable them to hold state power and production means in their hands and lead a fully independent life.
The transformation of nature and man, along with social reform. is an important historic task in the struggle of the popular masses for Chajusong. In the whole course of development of human society, the masses of the people have continuously struggled to free themselves from the fetters of nature and enhance themselves ideologically and culturally.
At the dawn of human society, people's creative power was weak, and their ideological and cultural levels were very low. By their age-long hard-fought struggles the masses have increased their ability to conquer nature, enriched their knowledge, developed the productive forces, and steadily raised the levels of their ideological consciousness and culture. Modern science and technology, progressive ideas and culture which have been developed by human society, are without exception the result of the historical struggles of the popular masses.
The transformation of nature and man, that is, the historic cause of freeing the popular masses from the fetters of nature and outdated ideas and culture and developing them to be powerful beings capable of dominating nature and real possessors of revolutionary ideas and culture, can be fully undertaken and achieved with success only under socialism where the working masses are masters of society. Under socialism where the question of revolutionary change in the social system has already been resolved in the struggle for Chajusong, the major tasks are to reshape nature and re-educate people to emancipate the masses, who have eliminated social oppression, from the shackles of nature and outdated ideas and culture. When the work of transforming nature and re-educating people is pushed forward in a complete way on the basis of steadily consolidating the socialist system, the Chajusong of the masses will be more completely realized in all spheres.
Today, the struggle to defend the masses' Chajusong assumes an international character. Since the forces of imperialism which oppress Chajusong are allied on an international scale, the struggle to oppose imperialist domination and oppression and defend Chajusong, too, cannot but be an international undertaking. Because of the community of their historical backgrounds and interests, the formerly oppressed nations and peoples who have been subjected to colonial slavery, with their independence and sovereignty downtrodden by imperialism, are united together on the same front of struggle to oppose imperialism and defend Chajusong. All countries, all nations, and peoples the world over that advocate Chajusong must struggle joinery, in close unity under the revolutionary banner of anti-imperialism and independence. This is the only way to abolish the imperialist world order which is based on inequality and full of contradictions, and to set up a new international relationship based on Chajusong and equality amongst countries and nations.
The age-long ceaseless struggle of the masses for Chajusong can win its ultimate aim by building socialism and communism. The struggle for socialism and communism is the highest stage of the struggle for Chajusong. It is a struggle to end once and for all the exploitation of man by man, the oppression of class by class, and the domination of state by state in human society, to wipe out all remnants of old societies handed down through history, and to finally free the people from their shackles. In a communist society the masses of the people will lead a completely independent life as masters of nature and society and as true masters of their own destiny.
Defending Chajusong is an absolute requirement of man as a social being and his inalienable fundamental right. It is natural that man, who regards Chajusong as his life and soul, combats any encroachment on his Chajusong. The popular masses rise in the revolutionary struggle for Chajusong against the oppressors. And for the sake of Chajusong they devote all their creative talents and energies to building socialism and communism. If Chajasong is to be defended, an independent stand must firmly be maintained in the revolution and construction. As the leader instructed, the independent stand is the fundamental stand that must be adhered to in the revolution and construction. Sticking to this stand is the requirement of the revolutionary struggle, the struggle for Chajusong. The independent stand is a thoroughly revolutionary stand, the working-class stand. The working class is the most independent class which struggles to emancipate itself by its own initiative and to become the master of its own destiny. The cause of socialism and communism is the historic cause of the working class, aimed at completely realizing the Chajusong of the masses of the people. Any stands which are contrary to the independent stand are alien to the working-class stand, the stand of the popular masses, and they are all harmful to the cause of socialism and communism.
The independent stand finds expression in the exercise of the rights as masters of the revolution and construction. This means that the masses of the people handle all problems of the revolution and construction in their interests, according to their own independent judgment and decision. The right to deal with all these problems belongs solely to the people, the masters, of the country concerned. All questions related to the revolution and construction in al country must naturally be disposed of by the judgment and decision of the people of that country. This is the only way the people of each country can defend their interests and carry through their will and desire. The people of each country must not tolerate any foreign pressure or interference. Failing to resolve one's own problems by one's own decision under pressure or in bondage to others means losing one's rights as master; following will of others and acting against one's own interests means giving up one's rights as master.
The independent stand is expressed in fulfilling the responsibility as masters. This signifies that the popular masses resolve all questions in the revolutionary struggle and construction work on their own responsibility and initiative as benefiting masters. As the revolution and construction are their own undertakings, they ought to resolve all problems arising in these undertakings by their own initiative on the principle of self-reliance. One might receive aid from others in the revolution and construction, but in any case the main thing is one's own initiative. Trying to get one's own work done by others or to get one's own problem solved by others is tantamount to shirking one's responsibility as master and relinquishing one's position as such. Only when one upholds the independent stand can one always resolve the question of revolution in one's country, the question of one's nation, in accordance with one's own views and conviction and in the revolutionary spirit of self-reliance, and carry out the revolution and construction successfully, whatever the circumstances.
The people of each country must not only oppose aggression and subjugation in firm defense of their Chajusong, but should also fight against imperialism and dominations which trample upon the Chajusong of other peoples. Only when one opposes such encroachment on one's own Chajusong and the act of trampling upon that of others, can one be said to be standing truly in defense of Chajusong. The revolutionary struggle of the popular masses against imperialism and dominationism which trample upon Chajusong, and for the victory of the cause of socialism and communism is steadily being strengthened and developed. Nothing can stem the current of historical development which demands Chajusong and advances on the road of independence. Not only today but also the future belongs entirely to the people who are struggling for Chajusong.
c) The Socio-Historical Movement is a Creative Movement of the Popular Masses
The socio-historical movement is a creative movement of the popular masses to transform and change nature and society.The masses' activity for the independent life is characterized by creativity. Man realizes his desire in life through his creative activity.
The objects of man's creative activity are nature and society. By means of his activity to transform nature which surrounds him and to reform the society in which he lives, man creates new material and cultural wealth and builds a new system and a new life. The masses of the people are creators who remake and change nature and society. They are desirous of abolishing the old and creating the new and have creative ability to transform nature and society.
Human history is the popular masses' history of creation. Since the beginning of human history, the masses of the people have been conquering nature and making what is necessary for their existence and development by their creative labour, and effecting social progress by their creative activity to change the old. Their continuous creative activity has advanced society.
Their creative activity to conquer nature and bring about social progress accompanies struggle. The process of creation is precisely the process of struggle. Without struggle the creation of new things would be inconceivable. The process of replacement of an old social system with a new one and the social emancipation of the masses in particular is a process of fierce class struggle. A revolution begins with struggle and ends with struggle. The forces which go in for the preservation of an old system and life never give up their place of their own accord. A new system and life can be created only through the struggle to wipe out the old forces. All progress and changes made by humanity throughout history, after all, are the fruit of the popular masses' creative struggle.
The process of their creative struggle is the process of developing themselves to be more powerful beings. The masses of the people has increased their creative ability while ill the same time transforming nature and developing society. The history of social productive forces is the history of the growth of men's creative capability to conquer nature. The history of social revolutions is the history of the process to strengthen the revolutionary power of the masses to reshape society.
With growth in the creative ability of the masses. the socio-historical movement advances further. The communist movement organized and developed by the working class is the highest form of creative movement in human history. This is a movement to build a society where the Chajusong and creativity of the masses of the people are fully realized, the highest ideal of mankind which is fundamentally different from all class societies that have existed in history. The creative power of the masses, too, is exploited fully in the revolutionary movement of the working class. It is not until their involvement in the revolutionary movement of the working class, the communist movement, that the working masses whose creative activity has been restrained by the ruling classes during the whole period of antagonistic class societies, become genuine creators of history who transform the world to meet their own will and desire and shape their destiny in an independent manner.
The revolutionary movement, the creative activity of the masses, requires that the creative stand be always maintained firmly in the struggles to reshape nature and society. Adhering to the creative stand is indispensable to leading the revolutionary movement to victory. Only when they adhere to the creative stand, can the popular masses keep properly their position as masters of the revolution and construction, and fulfill their role as such.
The creative stand is one that the masses of the people ought to maintain as transformers of nature and society, as shapers of their own destiny. Without maintaining this stand it would be impossible for them to reshape nature and society to meet their will and desire or hold their own destiny in their hands and shape it for themselves. Adherence to the creative stand is a sure guarantee for solving all problems by the efforts of the masses themselves to meet the requirement of the revolution and in accordance with their interests. As the Great Leader instructed, the creative stand constitutes the fundamental method that must be relied on in the revolution and construction.
The revolutionary movement requires that one should depend firmly on the creative wisdom and strength of the masses and utilize them to the full. The masses are masters and the motive force of the revolution and possessors of inexhaustible creative talents and strength. Only when one depends on their creative talents and strength, will one be able to understand the objective world correctly, solve all problems to suit the reality, and transform nature and society successfully. The creative stand provides the method by which to give an active stimulus to the creative power of the masses, push forward the revolution and construction on one's own initiative, overcome the difficulties in the path of progress by the struggle of the masses, and ensure continued innovations and ceaseless advance.
The revolutionary movement takes place in a specific reality which is always diverse and undergoes ceaseless changes. It rejects all sorts of schemata and dogmas and opposes the outdated attitude of imitating others mechanically. A schematic viewpoint and dogmatic way of thinking restrain creativity and prevent correct understanding of the ever-changing diverse realities and block the possibility of working out a scientific method of revolution and construction. Only when one bases oneself firmly on the specific reality and maintain a creative attitude towards everything, will one be able to identify the correct method of transforming nature and society and apply it skillfully. The creative stand represents the method whereby one rejects a dogmatic attitude and grasps the reality in its true perspective and concretely by one's own thinking and solves all questions accordingly. The creative stand constitutes the revolutionary method which enables one to meet most effectively the requirements of our time when the masses of the people have emerged as masters of history and when the revolutionary movement is highly developed. Our time requires that the role of the masses in the revolution and construction be enhanced to the highest degree and that all questions be solved creatively. The creative stand offers a sure guarantee for the victory of the revolution by enabling one to formulate a scientific revolutionary strategy and struggle policies in keeping with the development of our life and the new requirements of the revolution and ceaselessly increase the creative power of the popular masses.
d) The People’s Consciousness of Independence Plays the Decisive Role in Revolutionary Struggle
The revolution is propelled forward to victory by the conscious struggle of the masses of the people. The leader put in a new light the principle that the masses' consciousness of independence plays the decisive role in the revolutionary struggle.
Ideological consciousness determines and regulates all actions of man. Consciousness, essentially, is the highest quality that makes man superior to all beings and the most powerful in the world. It is the sophisticated function of man's brain, the most developed of his physical organs. The brain plays the central role in the activity of human life, and consciousness which is the function of the brain, commands all actions of man. Ideological consciousness reflects man's desire and interests, and for this reason, it has the most active effect on his conduct. Without the determination and regulation of ideological consciousness man’s independent and creative activities would be inconceivable.
If a man is to be an independent creative being he must have the consciousness of independence. This consciousness means the awareness of one's being the master of one's own destiny and signifies the will to shape one's destiny by one's own initiative. Only when a man has the consciousness of independence can he conduct conscious activity to conquer nature and actively struggle against the oppressors who encroach and trample upon his Chajusong. Man's endeavour to acquire a scientific understanding of the world and transform it actively is none other than the manifestation of his consciousness; man's role in transforming nature and society, after all, is the role of his ideological consciousness.
The consciousness of independence plays the decisive role in the masses' revolutionary movement for Chajusong. All revolutionary movements are conscious movements. A revolutionary movement begins with awakening people to an advanced idea and emerges victorious on the strength of the masses of the people who are armed with the advanced idea ideological consciousness is the decisive factor that determines man's role in the revolution and construction. ideological consciousness determines the class character of the actions of people who participate in the revolutionary movement. There can be no super-class ideology in a class society, and what is basic to man's ideological consciousness is his class awareness. People’s attitude towards the class struggle is determined by their class consciousness. Of course, people's activities are based on their social and class positions and limited by them. But their social and class positions have effect on their actions always through their ideological consciousness, which class interests people struggle for in a class society depends on which class ideology they have. Only when they have the ideology of an advanced class, the consciousness of independence, can they have a correct class standpoint and struggle for the victory of the revolution.
The will and fighting power of people demonstrated in the revolutionary movement are also determined by their ideological consciousness. The level of the willpower and strength demonstrated by the people is determined by their ideology. Only those who have a firm consciousness of independence will be able to take an indomitable attitude towards the revolution, actively participate in it with a strong will, and struggle to the end, overcoming all difficulties and has the masses' revolutionary ability is unfathomable. but it cannot find full expression if they are not ideologically awakened. Ideologically unawakened masses are unable to rise in the revolutionary struggle in spite of exploitation and oppression imposed upon them. nor can they successfully transform nature and society to meet their needs. Only those masses who are conscious of their class interests can demonstrate their revolutionary force to the full and guarantee victory in the revolution. The role of ideological consciousness steadily increases with the development of the revolutionary movement.
By nature. the communist movement. the highest stage of the revolutionary movement requires a high degree of consciousness from people. The socialist and communist societies are built by the purposeful and conscious efforts of the popular masses. The role of ideological consciousness is incomparably enhanced when building socialism and communism after the seizure of political power and the establishment of the socialist system by the working class. Capitalism depends on the discipline of hunger and the rod, but socialism and communism rely on the high level of people's consciousness. True control is necessary in the socialist society which is transitional. But the more the remnants of old society are eliminated as progress is made in building socialism and communism, the greater becomes the significance of people's consciousness. Socialism and communism provide all conditions for increasing the role of people's ideological consciousness to the full. In the socialist society, the advanced ideology of the working class prevails all over the community. Capitalism subordinates even man’s thinking and action to money considerations, but socialism and communism make the masses of the people true masters of society, and therefore, give full play to the revolutionary enthusiasm and creative zeal of the masses.
The tremendous role of ideological consciousness in the revolutionary struggle for socialism and communism is also connected with the characteristics of the revolutionary thought of the working class.
The role of ideological consciousness in social progress depends on its class character and content. The reactionary ideology of the exploiting class hampers social progress, whereas the advanced ideology of the progressive class gives impetus to the development of society. The revolutionary ideology of the working class, the most independent class, has an incomparably greater revolutionary influence than any other advanced ideas in history. The revolutionary thought of the working class mirrors the laws of social development and the aspirations of the masses in a scientific manner, so that it becomes a great material force in social progress. It is a weapon with which to understand and change the reality and create the future. Unlike the reactionary thinking of the exploitation class which hinders the forward movement of history and advocates the old moribund system, the revolutionary thought of the working class performs the mission to push forward and lead historical progress.
The revolutionary movement is a conscious movement, and for this reason one must always hold fast to people's thinking as the main thing in the revolutionary struggle and construction work. Doing this is an important principle that must be maintained in the revolution and construction. Grasping man's thinking as the main thing in the revolution and construction means solving all problems by attaching decisive importance to the ideological factor and enhancing the role of ideological consciousness.
Attaching decisive importance to the ideological factor is a law of revolutionary movement. Material factors, too, play a great part in the revolutionary movement. But the existence of material conditions does not give rise to the revolution automatically. How to make use of these material conditions depends on people's conscious activity. Whether these material conditions are prepared quickly or not depends on man's activity. The revolution can be pushed forward only by the active struggle of the revolutionaries and the popular masses. Fundamentally speaking, a revolution does not always break out when all the necessary conditions exist, nor is it carried out always in favorable circumstances.
Waiting with folded arms for all conditions to ripen is tantamount to refusing to make a revolution. Primary importance therefore should be given to the ideological factor in the revolutionary struggle and construction work, and on this basis strenuous efforts should be made to create all the necessary conditions.
Solving all problems by raising the level of people's consciousness is the method inherent to the communists. The communists who struggle for the freedom and happiness of the people, lead the revolution to victory and fulfill their noble mission by awakening people ideologically and making them conscious and encouraging them to undertake the struggle of their own accord. The communists have a powerful ideological weapon capable of awakening all the people to activity. Although the capitalist class, too, strives to spread its ideology, capitalist thinking cannot be accepted by the masses as their own because it fundamentally conflicts with their interests. Only the working-class ideology which champions the interests of the working masses can be accepted by all the people, and it alone can dominate the whole society.
Doing everything by awakening people politically and ideologically is a solid guarantee for the triumph of the revolution and construction. Reliance on the high degree of the masses' revolutionary consciousness will give a strong impetus to the revolutionary struggle and construction work, overcome unfavorable conditions and speed up the victory of the revolution.
The guiding principles of the Juche idea are the guide to establishing Juche in WPK and state activities and in all spheres of revolution and construction. They are explicit fundamental principles which must be observed in successfully carrying out the revolution and construction by adhering to the independent and creative stands and enhancing the role of ideological consciousness. In order to apply the Juche idea to the revolution and construction it is essential to observe thoroughly the guiding principles of the Juche idea.
a) The Independent Stand Must be Maintained
If the revolution and construction are to be carried out as required by the Juche idea, Chajusong must be maintained and realized in Party and state activities. The Great Leader laid down the principles of Juche in ideology, independence in politics, self-sufficiency in the economy, and self-reliance in defense as the principles of realizing Chajusong. The principles of Juche, independence, self-sufficiency and self-reliant defense are the guiding principles of realizing Chajusong in the spheres of ideology, politics, the economy and defense.
b) Juche in Ideology
Establishing Juche in ideology is the primary requirement of the masses' revolutionary struggle for Chajusong. The revolution and construction are man's conscious activities. Establishing Juche in thinking, therefore, is the only way to establish Juche in politics, the economy, defense and all other domains. To establish Juche in ideology means having the consciousness that one is the master of the revolution and construction, thinking and doing everything, centering on the revolution in one's own country, and acquiring the viewpoint and attitude of solving all questions by one's own talents and initiative.
The party and people of a country are masters of the revolution in that country and to carry out the revolution in one's country successfully is the basic mission of the party and people the one’s country. The world revolution, too, will only be successful when the revolution in every country is successful and when, on this basis, mutual support and cooperation is given. For this reason, the party and people of every country must firmly establish Juche in ideology, and carry out the revolution and construction in their country in a responsible manner, with the attitude of masters.
In order to establish Juche in ideology, it is necessary to equip oneself with the revolutionary idea of the working class and with the policy of one's party. The working class is an independent class, and their revolutionary thinking is an independent thinking. Only when one is equipped with the revolutionary thought of the working class, will one be able to carry out successfully the revolution and construction, however difficult and complex the situation is, with the awareness that one is the master of the revolution.
The policy of the revolution the party of a country, the embodiment of the revolutionary thinking of the working class, is the guide to the revolution and construction in that country. One must equip oneself with one's party policy and regard it as the guideline of thinking and practice. This is the only way to carry out the revolution and construction in accordance with the desire of one's own people and the specific reality of one's own country and fulfill one's responsibility as master of the revolution. When we say that we establish Juche in ideology, we precisely mean that we equip ourselves with the Juche idea and Party policy, the embodiment of the Juche idea, and establish the monolithic ideological system of the Party.
Only when the whole Party and the whole society are imbued with the monolithic ideological system, will we be in a position to say that Juche in ideology has been firmly established. If one is to establish Juche in thinking, one must be well versed in one's own things. Only when one knows the things of one's country well will one be able to solve all problems arising in the revolution and construction in an independent manner and to suit one's specific situation and carry out the revolution and construction in conformity with the aspirations and requirements of one's people. Only then will one be able also to love one's country and people ardently and demonstrate a high degree of patriotic devotion and revolutionary enthusiasm.
Koreans must know well Korean history, geography, economics, culture and the custom of the Korean nation and in particular our Party’s policy, its revolutionary history and revolutionary traditions. Only then will they be able to establish Juche and become true Korean patriots, the Korean communists. In order to establish Juche in thinking, it is necessary to possess high sense of national dignity and revolutionary pride.
Without the sense of national pride that one's nation is inferior to none, without the pride and honor of the revolutionary people, it would be impossible to live up to one's conviction in an independent manner, uphold national independence and dignity and emerge victorious in the difficult revolutionary struggle. A nation with a strong sense of national dignity and revolutionary pride is unconquerable, but a nation without this attribute is powerless. The peoples of small countries who have long suffered oppression by foreign forces need so much the more the sense of national dignity and revolutionary pride. In the small countries where nihilism and flunkeyism towards big powers are nationally deep-rooted as a result of the imperialist policy of assimilating colonies and obliterating their national culture, they must give special attention to the struggle to increase the sense of national dignify and revolutionary pride. They should ensure that all the people cherish the dignity of the resourceful and courageous Korean nation, the sense of pride and honor of a people who is making a revolution under the guidance of the great leader in particular.The task of establishing Juche in ideology requires that national culture should be developed and that the cultural and technical levels of the masses raised.
The Korean people must build culture which is national in form and revolutionary and socialistic in content, Juche-oriented culture which agrees with our people's sentiments and is based on the working class line. This will make people's ideological and spiritual life healthy and facilitate the establishment of Juche in ideology. In order to develop socialist national culture on a sound basis, we must thoroughly prevent imperialist cultural penetration and, at the same time, reject the tendency to return to the past and nihilist inclination with regard to the heritage of national culture, inherit and develop its fine traditions, and critically adopt progressive elements of foreign culture, which are congenial to our people's sentiments. It is also necessary to make strenuous efforts to develop science and technology and raise the cultural and technical standards of the masses. This will enable the people to become true masters of nature and society and get rid of the idea of worshipping and depending on others in the matter related to science and technology and thoroughly establish Juche.
If Juche is to be established in ideology, servility to big powers and all other outdated ideas should be opposed. Establishing Juche in thinking itself means an ideological emancipation of people from the fetters of outdated ideas, and an ideological revolution to establish a new Juche outlook on the world. In order to establish Juche in ideology we must reject all sorts outdated Ideas which are contrary to the Juche idea, and thoroughly eliminate servitude to big powers in particular. Flunkeyism is an attitude peculiar to slaves serving and worshipping big powers and developed countries, and an attitude of nihilism which means looking down upon one's own country and nation and despising them. If one is inclined to be servile, one would be in the habit of groveling before others and following them: if others take to revisionism, one follow suit; and if others adopt dogmatism, one would act likewise.
As the Great Leader said, if a person falls into flunkeyism, he would become a fool; if a nation is servile to big powers, the country would go to ruin; and if a party is subservient to big powers, it would make a mess of the revolution and construction. What is most harmful and dangerous at present is flunkeyism towards US imperialism in particular. This servility, which is expressed in the fear and worship of the United States, is doing a great harm to the revolutionary struggle of the people. The harmfulness of this servility is most notable in South Korea today. Servility to US imperialism, which has been spread by the US imperialist aggressors and their stooges, is the most harmful ideological poison which is paralyzing people's national and class consciousness in South Korea and trampling upon the precious cultural heritage and beautiful customs of our nation. Unless the struggle is intensified to oppose the fear and worship of the United States among the South Korean people and to heighten their spirit of national independence, neither the victory of the South Korean revolution nor the independent reunification of the country would be possible. The struggle to establish Juche and oppose flunkeyism towards big powers is a serious question on which the destiny of the revolution depends. We will continue to intensify the struggle to eliminate flunkeyism and establish Juche in ideology and thus guarantee the ultimate victory of the Korean revolution.
c) Self-Sufficiency in the Economy
The economy is the material basis of social life. Economic self-sufficiency enables one to consolidate the independence of one's country and live independently, provides a sure guarantee for Juche in ideology, independence in politics, and self-reliance in defense and ensures rich material and cultural lives for the people. In order to implement the principle of economic self-sufficiency, one must build an independent national economy.
Building an independent national economy means building an economy which is free from dependence on others and which stands on its own feet, an economy which serves one's own people and develops on the strength of the resources of one's own country and by the efforts of one's own people. Such an economy makes it possible to develop the productive forces quickly by utilizing the nation's natural resources in a rational and integrated way, improve the people's living standard continuously, strengthen the material and technical foundations of socialism, and increase the nation's political, economic and military power. It also ensures the exercise of complete sovereignty and equality in political and economic affairs in international relations and contributes to strengthening the world’s anti-imperialist, independent forces and socialist forces. It is vital to build an independent national economy particularly in those countries which were backward economically and technically because of imperialist domination and plunder in the past. Only when they build an independent national economy in these countries, will they be able to repel the new colonial policy of the imperialists, free themselves completely from their domination and exploitation, wipe out national inequality, and vigorously advance on the road of socialism.
In order to build an independent national economy, it is essential to adhere to the principle of self-reliance in economic construction.
Self-reliance is the revolutionary spirit and a principle of struggle of the communists in carrying out the revolution by their own initiative. One must believe in one's own strength and depend on it in economic construction, just as in all other activities for the revolution and construction. A people who energetically struggle, with confidence in their own capability, will be able to do any difficult work. But a people who have no faith in their own power but only look up to others, will not do anything successfully. Only when one mobilizes the efforts of one's people and the resources of one's country and relies on one's own financial resources and technology on the principle of self-reliance, will one be able to develop the economy quickly at one's own desire, overcome all difficulties and bring prosperity to the country.
If an independent national economy is to be built, the economy must be developed in a diversified and integral manner. Unlike the capitalist economy which is geared to make money, the socialist independent economy is always aimed at meeting the demands of the country and the people. So an independent economy should naturally be developed in such a multifarious and integral way as to produce independently heavy and light industry goods and agricultural products to make the country rich and powerful and improve the people's living standard. Such an economy can also develop safely and quickly on a solid basis.
In order to build an independent economy which is developed in a multifarious and comprehensive way, it is necessary, as our practical experience shows, to follow the line of giving preference to the development of heavy industry and developing light industry and agriculture simultaneously.
Heavy industry with the machine-building industry as its backbone is the pillar of an independent national economy. Heavy industry developed in such a way can guarantee economic and technical independence and accelerate the development of light industry and agriculture and the national economy as a whole on the basis of modern technology. Moreover, simultaneous development of light industry and agriculture, along with heavy industry, can ensure a systematic improvement of the people's living standard and faster the development of heavy industry itself. Solving the problem of food on one's own through successful farming, in particular, is of tremendous significance in providing the people with stabilized living conditions and an independent life.
Equipping the economy with modern techniques and training the nation's technical cadres on an extensive scale are indispensable for the construction of an independent national economy.
Technical independence is absolutely necessary for economic independence. When one has one's own developed techniques, one will be able to develop and use the natural resources of the country effectively and develop the national economy in a diversified manner. Developed technology also provides the possibility to free the working masses from backbreaking labor, narrow down the differences between physical and mental labor and resolve independently the difficult and complex problems arising in economic and defense construction. Eliminating technical backwardness from the national economy and equipping it with modern techniques is a revolution. Only when the technical revolution is accelerated continuously through the mobilization of all possibilities in every sector, will technology develop quickly and the country attains economic and technical independence in a short time.
Solving the question of the nation's technical personnel is a major factor in the struggle for economic and technical independence. This is essential to guaranteeing economic and technological progress by one's own initiative. This is a particularly important task in building a new society for those countries which were under the yoke of imperialism in the past and which consequently were far removed from modern science and technical development. Therefore, in order to undertake the technical revolution and attain economic and technical independence, one must put a lot of effort into the cultural revolution and thus raise the cultural and technical levels of the working masses and train an army of national technical cadres. We must resolutely implement the leader's policy of intellectualizing the whole society, further raise the cultural and technical levels of the working masses, improve the qualities of technical cadres, and train more technicians better. In order to build an independent national economy, it is necessary to establish reliable and independent sources of raw materials and fuel.
Depending on others for raw materials and fuel is as good as leaving one's economic lifeline in the hands of others. If one is to be economically self-sufficient and develop the economy on a safe basis and with a long-term perspective, one must depend on one's own raw-material and fuel sources and mainly meet one's own demand for them. To this end, one must exploit the natural resources of one's country to the maximum and utilize them rationally and, at the same time, develop the industry to be a Juche-oriented one which relies on domestic raw materials and fuel from the outset.
Building an independent national economy on the principle of self-reliance does not mean building an economy in isolation. An independent economy is opposed to foreign economic domination and subjugation; but it does not rule out international economic cooperation. Close economic and technical cooperation between socialist countries and newly-emerging nations, in particular, plays an important part in ensuring economic self-sufficiency in these countries and in increasing their economic power.
Today, the peoples of newly-emerging countries are struggling against the US and other imperialists' policy of aggression and plunder, in defense of their national sovereignty and natural resources, and in order to put an end to the old economic order by which a few capitalist powers have exploited and plundered at will the majority of the countries and peoples throughout the world, and to establish a new fair world economic order. The newly-emerging countries have inexhaustible manpower resources and natural wealth and huge economic potentialities. They also have a good deal of valuable experience and techniques which can be shared and exchanged. If they strengthen economic and technical cooperation and vigorously struggle with their forces united, the newly-emerging countries and peoples will be able to thwart the imperialist policy of aggression and plunder, uphold their national dignity and right to survival, and achieve economic self-sufficiency and prosperity in a short period without depending on great powers.
The important task confronting us today in building the socialist independent national economy is to accelerate the Juche-orientation, modernization and scientization of the national economy. As the Great Leader said explicitly, the Juche-orientation, modernization and scientization of the national economy constitute the strategic line that must be consistently followed in economic construction for socialism and communism. By pushing forward the Juche-orientation, modernization and scientization of the national economy, holding on fast to the line of building the independent national economy, we must further strengthen the independence and Juche character of the national economy, continue to modernize technical equipment and put all productive and management activities completely on a scientific basis.
d) Self-Reliance in Defense
Self-reliance in defense is a fundamental principle of an independent sovereign state. A state without self-reliant armed forces capable of defending the country from the enemies at home and abroad when imperialism exists cannot, in fact, be called a completely independent sovereign state. Imperialism is a constant cause of war, and the main force of aggression and war today is US imperialism.
As the Great Leader said, we do not want war, nor are we afraid of it, nor do we beg peace from the imperialists. The best way to preserve national independence and peace and win the revolutionary cause is to counter the imperialist war of aggression with the war of liberation, answer the counter-revolutionary violence of reaction with revolutionary violence, and always meet the imperialist moves of aggression and war in full preparedness. For this purpose, we must implement the principle of self-reliance in defense.
Self-reliant defense is a military guarantee for a nation's political independence and economic self-sufficiency. Only when one implements the principle of self-reliant defense, will one be able to repel imperialist aggression and intervention, defend the nation's political independence and economic self-sufficiency and safeguard the revolutionary achievements and the security of the people.
Implementing the principle of self-reliant defense means defending one's country by one's own efforts. Of course, one may receive aid in national defense from fraternal countries and friends. But it is impossible to depend on others for the defense of one's own country. In any case, the main thing is one's own strength. Only when one is strong, will foreign aid prove effective. In national defense, therefore, one should rely on the efforts of one's own people and one's own defense capability before anything else. Defense work, too, is an undertaking for the people and of the people themselves. If all the people participate in unison in the national-liberation struggle and in the defense of the country, under the leadership of the revolutionary party, they will be able to repel all imperialist aggressors and safeguard national independence and revolutionary achievements. In order to implement the principle of self-reliant defense, one must have armed forces capable of defending one's country.
Such armed forces must embrace the sons and daughters of the working people. An army whose men and commanding officers come from among the workers, peasants and other working people, can guarantee unity between the army and the people, and between superiors and subordinates, and become a truly self-reliant people's army which safeguards national independence and revolutionary achievements and serves the people. If the principle of self-reliant defense is to be implemented, a defense system involving all the people and the whole country must be established.
The establishment of such a defense system requires that the whole of the army must be turned into a cadre army and modernized. Only when the whole army is a cadre army, will it become strong and provide the necessary force of commanders and multiply its strength in case of need. And a modernized army which blends its politico-ideological superiority with modern technology will become a really unconquerable revolutionary army.
In order to set up an all-people, all-nation defense system, it is also necessary to arm all the people and fortify the whole country. When all the people are under arms and the whole country becomes a fortress, all the people can be mobilized to crush the enemy as soon as it comes into attack from any quarter, and defend the country from imperialist aggression with credit.
If the principle of self-reliant defense is to be implemented, the politico-ideological superiority of the people's armed forces should be utilized to the maximum. The decisive factor for victory in war does not consist in weapons or techniques, but in the high political enthusiasm and revolutionary devotion of the army and popular masses that are conscious of the justice of their cause. A noble revolutionary spirit to fight for the freedom and liberation of the people, boundless loyalty to the party and the leader, a peerless self-sacrificing spirit and mass heroism which are expressed in willingly giving up one's youth and life for the sake of the country and revolution, revolutionary comradeship between men and officers, their inseparable links with the people, and voluntary military discipline -- these are politico-ideological superiority peculiar to a people's army, a revolutionary army. As the history of revolutionary wars shows, a revolutionary army which is in firm politico-ideological readiness, though armed with inferior weapons can fight and defeat an enemy equipped with the latest arms. Indeed politico-ideological superiority is the essential merit of revolutionary armed forces and the source of their invincibility.
It is imperative, therefore, to knit the army closely from a politico-ideological point of view and steadily raise its politico-ideological level and ensure that imperialist armies of aggression are defeated by the strength of the politico-ideological superiority of the revolutionary people's armed forces. The principle of self-reliant defense, to be implemented, requires that one must build one's own defense industry.
A national defense industry is a material guarantee for self-reliant armed forces. Particularly at this time when the US and other imperialists are viciously maneuvering to subjugate other countries by offering arms as a bait, and plundering other peoples' resources and making huge profits through arms deal, the newly-independent countries should build their own defense industries. This is of tremendous significance. True, it would be difficult for small countries to produce all the arms they need. But it would be inadvisable to depend totally on others for the arms. They should build and develop their own defense industries so that they can produce whatever is within their power. In order to implement the principle of self-reliant defense, it is essential to consolidate the home front.
As the Great Leader instructed, victory of defeat in modern war depends largely on whether or not manpower and material resources necessary for the war effort are ensured for a long period. If a nation is to be ready to cope with war, they must build up major strategic zones, store up necessary material reserves, and make full preparations from the peace time so as to continue with production even in the case of a contingency. Upholding the policy of building the economy and defense simultaneously, our Party has made good preparations both militarily and materially and built up both the front-line areas and home front to cope with war.
We will continue to fully implement the policy of self-reliant defense, and thus further strengthen our self-reliant armed forces to be invincible, fight back any enemy aggression and defend the country and revolutionary achievements faithfully.
Historical Significance of the Juche idea
The Juche idea is exerting a great influence on the ideological life of humanity and on the revolutionary changes of the world. It is gaining strong sympathy from people all over the world and giving a powerful impetus to the contemporary historic movement which is aspiring to Chajusong. The Juche idea has become an accepted contemporary thought, and its attraction and importance in affecting changes increase with the progress of history.
It gives us a genuinely revolutionary world outlook of our time, the Juche age. This constitutes a major historic contribution made by the Juche idea to the development of humanity's thinking and to the cause of liberation of mankind. People's notions of the world and their views on and approach towards it have developed down through long history.
The history of the world outlook was a history of struggle between two conflicting philosophical currents, that is, between materialism and idealism, between dialectics and metaphysics. In this struggle Marxism signaled the victory of materialism and dialectics. The emergence of the Marxist materialistic dialectical world outlook was a reflection of the contemporary requirements. The appearance of the working class on the arena of history ushered in a new era in human history. The new historical conditions, under which the revolution against capital had started, urgently demanded a revolutionary idea which would bring home the inevitability of the downfall of capitalism and the triumph of socialism to the working class who had risen up in struggle. The most important question in this was to vanquish the idealism and metaphysics which had sanctified the domination of reactionary capital and preached its eternity, and to elaborate a scientific world outlook of the working class. The materialistic dialectical world outlook came into being as a reflection of this requirement of the times.
The progress of the times is accompanied by the development of' the world outlook. The steady expansion and development of the revolution which started with the emergence of the working class, gave birth to a new age when the working masses who had so far been the object of' history appeared as its masters. The new age that witnessed the appearance of the working class and other working masses as a great force controlling the world, demanded the evolvement of a new world outlook which would enable them to become masters of their own destiny, shaping it in an independent and creative way, and to realize successfully the historic cause of national liberation, class emancipation and human freedom. This historic task was brilliantly accomplished with the evolution of the Juche idea.
The Juche idea which elucidates the world outlook of a new age is fresh and unique in its philosophical principle that forms its foundation. In the past the relations between substance and consciousness, between being and thinking were regarded as the basic question of philosophy. The Marxist materialistic principle concerning the priority of substance and being gave a scientific solution to this question. Since the question of the world’s origin had been made clear by the materialistic viewpoint, the Juche idea raised a new problem concerning the position and role of man in the world as the basic question of philosophy and gave an answer to the question of who is the master of the world.
The philosophical principle of the Juche idea which clarifies the position and role of man as master of the world is based on a new elucidation of man. The question on man had been also discussed a great deal by preceding philosophies, but it was confined mostly to abstract views on pure man, to the exclusion of social relations. The question of man's substance in social relations was raised and made clear by Marxism.
Considering man in social relations the Juche idea cast a new light on his essential features. It expounded that man is a social being with Chajusong, creativity and consciousness, and thus gave a perfect philosophical elucidation of man. The clarification by the Juche idea of the philosophical principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything, on the basis of the scientific explanation of man as a social being, was a philosophical discovery which brought about a new change in the world outlook.
The idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything, in other words, the idea that man is the master of the world and his own destiny and is the transformer of the world and the shape of his destiny, is fundamentally opposed to idealism and metaphysics. Idealism leads to mystical theory that the world and man's destiny are controlled by the supernatural "might", while metaphysics leads to the fatalistic belief that everything in the world is immutable and, accordingly, man must be obedient to his predetermined destiny. The idea that man is the master of the world and his own destiny and is able to transform the world and shape his destiny, is based on the premise of the materialistic and dialectical viewpoint which denies mysticism and fatalism. The Juche idea uniquely defined the domination of the world by man who is the highest-developed product in the material world, as well as the principles of its transformation and progress, thus shedding a new light on the foundation of the world outlook. The world outlook based on the philosophical principle of Juche is a world outlook which is centered on man.
There have been various types of world outlook in history, but there was none that clearly indicated the viewpoint and stand on the world placing man at the center. Even the materialists who in the past had regarded the world as a material object, to say nothing of the idealists who considered it as a world of ideas or spirit, could not put forward the viewpoint and approach towards the world with man at the centre. The Juche idea defined man as the master who dominates the world, not merely as part of it, and thus established a new world outlook which, unlike preceding ones, regards the world and its changes and progress with man, its master, at the centre. The Juche viewpoint and stand on the world with man in the central place provide a sure guarantee for the independent and creative cognitional activities and practice of man who transforms the world and shapes his destiny.
The Juche idea which clearly showed the man-centered viewpoint and stand towards the world provided a new view of social history. In the years prior to Marxism, even those who had advocated materialism or dialectics adhered to the idealistic stand towards social history. Marxism made it clear that, like nature, society belongs to the material world and changes and develops in accordance with the general laws that govern the development of this world. In this way it disproved the idealistic view on social history. While admitting the general laws of the progress of the material world which affect social history, the Juche idea expounded the laws which are peculiar to social history. Therein lies a great service the Juche idea rendered in perfecting the working-class outlook on social history.
The principle of social history that the subject of history is the masses of the people, that socio-historical movements are their independent and creative movements and that their consciousness of independence plays the decisive role in the revolutionary struggle, forms the basic content of the Juche-based view of history. This provides a new elucidation on the essence, character and motive force of socio-historical movement, the movement of the subject.
The Juche idea established the new viewpoint and stand which see historical development and social revolution with the popular masses, the subject, at the center. The Juche idea which clearly indicated the man-centered world outlook and the view of social history brought about a great change in the development of world outlook. The revolutionary world outlook of the working class had been established by Marxism for the first time, and it was developed by the Juche idea onto a new, higher plane for its perfection.
The Juche idea, the revolutionary world outlook representing a new era in history, the Juche age, is rightly leading the onward movement of mankind aspiring to independence and sovereignty, socialism and communism. While sweeping away the entire reactionary and counter-revolutionary currents of thoughts.
It marked a new, higher stage in the development of the working-class revolutionary theory. Therein lies another historic contribution of the Juche idea to the revolutionary cause of the working class and the cause of liberation of humanity. An age had passed and the revolutionary movement had gone a long way since the birth of the revolutionary theory of the working class. Revolutionary practice in the new era demanded that the revolutionary theory be developed in a way which was suitable to new historic conditions. The Juche idea propounded the basic principle of revolution that the masses of the people are masters and the motive force of the revolution and construction and, on this basis, rendered it possible to evolve new revolutionary theories required by our time.
The Juche idea is the sound basis on which to develop the revolutionary theory of the Juche age. Developing revolutionary theory on the basis of this idea means expounding the principles and laws of revolutionary movements with the working masses, the masters of revolution and construction, at the centre. Developing a revolutionary theory with the working people at the centre are a requirement of revolutionary movements in the Juche age. In our time when the working masses have established themselves as the masters of the world and when revolutionary struggles are being waged with a far-reaching scope on the strength of their consciousness of independence and creativeness, the principles and laws of revolutionary movements can be elucidated correctly only by developing a revolutionary theory with the working people at the centre. By this method the Juche idea has made it possible to fully elaborate on the revolutionary theory aimed at realizing Chajusong for the working masses; and it has consummated the revolutionary theories of the working class to include those on national liberation, class emancipation and human freedom, and to be a perfect communist theory of social and natural transformation and human remolding.
Placing the working masses at the centre in the development of a revolutionary theory is a sure guarantee for evolving the revolutionary theory and strategy and tactics in accordance with the true characteristic of the revolutionary movement. Every revolutionary movement is an undertaking for and b the working people. Therefore, a revolutionary theory and y strategy and tactics should naturally champion their interests and enhance their role, it can be said that the value of a theory depends on how well it advocates the interests of the popular masses, and that the effectiveness of strategy and tactics depends on how well they enhance the role of the masses. By basing itself on the Chajusong, creativity and consciousness of the masses, the Juche idea made it possible to evolve the theory, strategy and tactics which would champion their basic interests and provide the proper way to give rein to their high revolutionary zeal and inexhaustible creativeness. This is how the revolutionary theory of the working class has become most powerful and able to champion the interests of the working masses thoroughly and enhance their role to the utmost.
The Juche idea serves as a guideline which shows a correct approach to the preceding revolutionary theories. These working-class theories were advanced on the premise of the conditions and tasks of the past times which were different from today, but they have a community of class idea and mission with the revolutionary theory based on the Juche idea. By laying down the principle of creatively approaching the existing theories and experiences, the Juche idea makes it possible to apply and develop the preceding revolutionary theories to suit the requirements of revolutionary practice in our time. In particular, it maintains the position of firmly defending and realizing the Chajusong of the working class and other working masses, and thus makes it possible to accurately identify and eliminate all kinds of opportunism, including revisionism which gives up the cause of revolution halfway or denies class struggle, and uphold the class principle and the spirit of uninterrupted revolution in the revolutionary theories of the working class. The Juche revolutionary theory is the genuinely revolutionary theory of the working class in the Juche era and is the undying communist revolutionary theory which will be ever-victorious along with the struggle for the Chajusong of the working masses.
A great idea gives rise to great practice. The great Juche idea which throws a new light on the philosophical principle and on the laws of socio-historical movement, the revolutionary movement, and gives scientific elucidation of the guiding principles of revolution and construction, has brought about a tremendous change in revolutionary practice.
The Juche idea has been brilliantly applied, above all, to the Korean revolution and has won a great victory. The Korean revolution is guided by the Juche idea, and all its victories would be inconceivable without this idea. Under the banner of the Juche idea, the Korean revolution could get rid of its birth-pains caused by flunkeyism and dogmatism d has been able to triumphantly advance on the arduous road of struggle, getting over various difficulties and trials.
The Juche idea has led the revolution and construction straight along the new road which had never been trodden by others before, The Korean revolution has paved an absolutely correct path for national liberation in a colony and opened a short cut to socialism, It has created a best socialist new life which the world's people call a "model of socialism", and successfully pioneering the untrodden path to socialism and communism. Because the Juche idea illuminates the way, we have been able to advance along the shortest route and thus achieve in a brief period of time a great victory in the struggle for independence, sovereignty and socialism, a success which is amazing to the world. The Juche idea has become a solemn reality in our country. The history-making changes and great creations worked out by our people are precious fruit of this idea. Very proud and honored by the brilliant victory and results attained under the banner of the Juche idea, our people are now struggling for the historic cause of transforming the whole society in accordance with this idea.
Because it reflects the common aspiration of the world's people to Chajusong, the Juche idea is exerting a great influence on the contemporary revolutionary movements to build a new world of independence.
It has opened up a new revolutionary road, a broad avenue along which to advance the revolution in an independent and creative manner. When the revolutionary movement is making progress through diverse forms with the national state as one unit, demands that the people of each country properly play the role of masters with a high degree of awareness that they are the masters of revolution. This is more urgent since there is the influence of wrong ideologies such as worship of' great powers and dogmatism. By clearly showing how to stage a revolution in an independent and creative manner, the Juche idea has enabled the people of each country to have a strong sense of responsibility' as the masters of the revolution ridding themselves of the fetters of all outdated thought; hampering independent progress; and it has also helped them to work out a policy which is suitable to the actual conditions in their country, according to their own views and belief, and to exploit their own creativeness to push ahead with the revolution. The opening up of the way to stage a revolution in an independent and creative manner has encouraged the people in different conditions of history and at different stages of development to carry on, confident of victory, the vigorous struggle to achieve national liberation and class emancipation and build socialism and communism.
The Juche idea has paved a new road of the international communist movement advancing on the basis of Chajusong, and has brought about a new era of progress in international relations. The communist movement is an independent movement of the party and people in every country aimed at doing away with all types of subjugation and inequality and becoming the true masters of their destiny. So there should be neither superior-subordinate relations nor master-servant relations in this movement. Chajusong is the life and soul for every country and people, and no relations of domination and submission, order and obedience could be permitted between them. The Juche idea defined Chajusong as the fundamental principle of the relations between parties and between countries, and thus helped towards a change in the international communist movement and the development of international relations. Today the principle of Chajusong is displaying still greater vitality as a steadfast principle that guarantees the international communist movement and determines the relationship between the Communist and Workers' Parties. It also serves as a recognized principle of development of state relations among newly-independent countries and many countries of the world with different social systems and as a powerful weapon against the imperialists who subjugate other nations and impose inequality upon them. Indeed, the Juche idea is an immortal banner of struggle, a banner of victory, for the popular masses in their endeavor to create a new world and shape their own destiny.
Characteristic of the Juche idea
The characteristic of the Juche idea that is fundamentally different from all kinds of the preceding ideas are shortly that this idea is a man-centered philosophical thought. In this connection, General Secretary KIM JONG IL said: "The Juche idea is a new philosophical thought which centers on man." ("On the Juche Idea") That the Juche idea is a man-centred philosophical thought means that this idea newly raised the fundamental question of philosophy by regarding man as the main factor, and showed the viewpoint and Attitude toward the world by focusing on man. Until now, there existed a number of trends of philosophy in the human history of philosophical thoughts. But all of them were idealistic world outlooks centering on a mysterious being like "God" and Spirit or matter-centered materialistic world outlooks. Of course, there were various types of "human philosophy" that advocated placing stress on man among the previous philosophical thoughts. However, they were nothing but philosophies of life dealing with what a human being is and what a man's life is.
The Juche idea first, newly raises the relationship between the world and man, and mans position and role in the world, as the fundamental question of philosophy, and clarifies the fundamental principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything. The question of man's position and role in the world is not a pure question of human being, but a question of world outlook in light of putting man in the centre of philosophical consideration. That is why the principle that answers this question becomes the principle of man-centred world outlook, and at the same time becomes the principle that serves shaping man's destiny.
By focusing on man, the Juche idea, also, gives a new view of the world that the world is dominated and transformed by man and that it develops by man's volitional action and role, in the direction of serving man and in keeping with the development of man. And on the basis of the Juche view of the world, the Juche idea shows a new viewpoint and attitude toward the world that the world must be approached from the viewpoint of man's interests and on the basis of man's activity. Like this, the characteristic of the Juche idea that is fundamentally different from all the former philosophical thoughts is that this idea newly raises the fundamental question of philosophy by focusing one man and shows the viewpoint and attitude toward the world by regarding man as the main factor.
The Juche idea is a man-centred philosophical thought. For this reason, it is a thorough revolutionary philosophy, a political philosophy. As the Juche idea is an idea which was created in an arduous struggle to respond to the demand of revolutionary practice and developed and enriched in the course of giving answers to the ideological and theoretical questions arising in the revolutionary practice, it is a powerful ideological and theoretical weapon to highlight the absolutely correct way of revolutionary struggle. The Juche idea was evolved in the process of responding to the masses' demand and generalizing experiences attained in their struggle, proceeding from the viewpoint and attitude that the popular masses are the masters of everything and decide everything. Therefore, the Juche idea becomes the absolute truth which meets the people s desire for independence and which the masses can easily understand with regard to it as the weapon of their struggle.
Herein lies the reason why the Juche idea is a thorough revolutionary philosophy. Besides, the Juche idea is not only a revolutionary philosophy but also a political philosophy that clarifies the basic principle of politics. The destiny of the masses is shaped along with the development of society, which is guided by politics. So, only a philosophical ideology clarifying the basic principles of politics in a scientific way can make a real contribution to shaping the destiny of the masses. The principles of the man-centred philosophical world outlook and the socio-historical outlook as well as the principles of the outlook on the revolution that are all elucidated by the Juche idea, are not only the most scientific principles of world outlook but also the basic principles of politics that guarantee social development straightforwardly. In this sense, the Juche idea is regarded as a political philosophy. The characteristic of the Juche idea as a philosophical thought is that this idea is not only a man-centred philosophical thought but also a thorough revolutionary philosophy or a political philosophy.
Reflect of the Juche idea
The Juche idea emerged in reflecting the demand of the age of Juche, a new era in history that is fundamentally different from all the preceding ages.
In this connection President KIM IL SUNG said: "The present era is the era of independence when the oppressed and humiliated people have emerged as masters of the world and are carving out their destiny independently and creatively." ("Kim IL Sung Works, Vol.34") During the whole period of thousands years of long antagonized class society, the working masses were deprived of the position as master in the society, being subjected to the exploitation, being ignored their fundamental rights by a handful of ruling classes, exploiting classes. In the early part of the 20th century, the October Socialist Revolution registered victory in Russia. The revolutionary struggles of the working class against the domination of capital were sharply intensified afterwards in European capitalist countries. And the people in the colonial countries of Asia, who had long suffered the colonial exploitation and oppression of imperialism, rose up in their national liberation struggles.
All these stirring events on the international arena at that time showed that a radical change was taking place in the position and role of the masses that had been only the object of history for a long. A new era in history, the age of Juche, demanded urgently that the broad masses, which emerged as masters of history, seize their own destinies in their own hands and carve them out in an independent and creative manner unprecedentedly. In Korea, it was of a matter of particular importance to meet this basic demand of revolutionary practice in a new age in light of the peculiarities of its historical development and the complexity and adversity of its revolution. In Korea in the past, flunkeyism was fostered; and factional strife was severe because of the corrupt and incompetent feudal rulers in the Ri Dynasty. As a result Korea was ruined. Nevertheless, the nationalists and self-styled Marxists in the 1920's followed the evil practices of flunkeyism and factional strife. They did not try to carry out the revolution on their own initiative but dreamed of achieving independence by depending on foreign forces. At that time, those who were allegedly engaged in the communist movement formed their own party groups and called frequently at the Comintern to gain its recognition. And they endeavored to imitate mechanically the established theories and experience of others, without taking into consideration the historical conditions and specific realities in Korea where a Colonial and semi-feudal society was in existence. In this way, flunkeyism and dogmatism were very serious obstacles in the way of revolution.
The Korean revolution which opened up the age of Juche was a difficult and complex revolution which had to fulfill the tasks of the anti-imperialist national-liberation revolution against the formidable Japanese imperialists and the tasks of the anti-feudal, democratic revolution simultaneously. It was an arduous revolution which had to hew out an untrodden path. Such circumstances demanded more urgently that the Korean people choose the road of revolution in
reliance on their own independent conviction and judgement and open up the path ahead of revolution on the basis of their own strength and in an independent and creative way. Just at that moment, President KIM IL SUNG gained a wise insight into the demand of the coming new age before anyone else and created a new revolutionary idea, the Juche idea that reflected the demand most correctly. The Juche idea was created as a correct reflection of the demand of a new age in history, the age of Juche. For this reason, it became the most scientific revolutionary idea which enables the popular masses to carve out their own destinies independently and creatively.
The characteristic of the Juche idea that is fundamentally distinguished from all the preceding ideas is that it is the man-centred philosophical thought.
That the Juche idea is the man-centred philosophical thought means that it newly raised the fundamental question of philosophy with a man at a centre and clarifies the viewpoint and stand toward the world with a man at a centre.
First, the Juche idea raises newly the relationship between man and the world, the position and role of man in the world, as the fundamental question of philosophy and clarifies the fundamental principle that man is a master of everything and decides everything.
Next, with a man at a centre, the Juche idea clarifies a new view on the world that the world is dominated and transformed by man and that the world is developed by man's purposeful action and role in the direction of serving man and in accordance with his development. It clarifies a new view and stand of approaching the world proceeding from man's interest and with his activities as the main on the basis of the Juche-oriented view on the world.
The fundamental characteristics of the Juche idea which are fundamentally different from all other preceding philosophical thought are that the Juche idea newly raises the fundamental question of philosophy with a man at a centre and clarifies the man-centred view and stand on the world. The Juche idea has been developed by reflecting demands and aspirations of the popular masses and generalizing their fighting experiences proceeding from the viewpoint and stand that the masses are masters of everything and decide everything. That is why; the people consider the Juche idea as an absolute truth that conforms to their demand for independence and as a weapon of their struggle.
Mental source of the Juche idea
The ideological and mental source of the Juche idea is the idea of "Aim High" and its premise is Marxism-Leninism. The ideological and mental source of the Juche idea is the idea of "Aim High" put forward by Kim Hyong Jik, the father of The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG and an outstanding leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation movement in Korea. "Aim high" means what it says? The idea of "Aim High" is a revolutionary and patriotic idea originated from the historical lessons of the Korean people's arduous struggle to restore the country. This idea implies an ardent love for one's own country, nation and people, an absolute trust in the strength of the popular masses and a thorough-going spirit of independence that one must always win the nation's independence by one’s own effort. With the spirit of ardent love for country, nation and the people and with an ideology of attaching importance to the popular masses and an ideology of self-independence as the most precious sustenance.
The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG embarked on the road of revolution and went among the people to seek for a new path for the revolution. In this course, the President found two starting points of the Juche idea. One of them is that the masters of the revolution are the popular masses and when one goes among the people to educate and mobilize them, one will be able to register victory in the revolution. Another starting point is that the revolution should be carried out not by anyone's approval or instruction but by one's own conviction and on one's own responsibility, and all problems arising in the revolution and construction should be solved in an independent and creative way. When President KIM IL SUNG met the delegation of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance of Peru visiting the DPRK from the late June to the early July 1983, he said that, in the first period of his revolutionary activities, he viewed critically the actual situation of the Korean nationalist movement and initial communist movement and felt keenly that the revolution should be waged on the strength of one's own people and that one's own problems should be solved on one's own responsibility. And he further said that his father, too, had much revolutionary influence on his conceiving such idea.
Like this, the idea of "Aim High" served as a source of the Juche idea: a revolutionary idea of the masses based on the principle that the masses are masters of the revolution and construction and the motive force of the revolution and construction; or an independent revolutionary idea based on the principle that people in each country are the masters and the motive force of their own revolution. The ideological and theoretical premise for the Juche idea is Marxism-Leninism.
The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG was engrossed in reading books on Marxism-Leninism not because of taste for learning and spirit of inquiry but from the standpoint of finding answers to the question of in what way one can defeat the Japanese imperialists to regain the country and eradicate inequality of society to make the working people enjoy a happy life. In this course, the President sympathized with a socialist ideology embodied in Marxism-Leninism, but he saw through its limitations of an age, its historical limitations. And through a profound analysis of it, he found new principles of revolution and built the frame of an independent revolutionary idea, the Juche idea.
For this reason, the Juche idea is deeply connected with Marxism-Leninism that asserted liquidating exploitation and oppression of man by man, eradicating all kinds of social inequality and building a socialist society where the broad masses of the people including working class enjoy a free and equal life. However, this never means that the Juche idea is an idea which inherited directly some principles of Marxism-Leninism. Though the Juche idea is an idea connected with Marxism-Leninism, it is a new, original revolutionary idea which gave answers to the demands of a historical age different from that of Marx and Lenin, and was evolved and systematized with its own peculiar principles.
The Juche philosophical outlook on the world is the view of, and the viewpoint and stand to the world centering on man. In this connection General Secretary KIM JONG IL said: The Juche outlook on the world that established the view of the world with man at the centre and that clarified the viewpoint and stand towards the world centering on man, marks the highest stage in the development of the world outlook. The Juche philosophical outlook on the world is, first of all, the view of the world centering on man. The Juche philosophical outlook on the world clarifies that the world is dominated and transformed by man and that the world develops in accordance with the development of man and in the direction of serving himself on the part of his volitional action and role, on the basis of the fundamental principle that man is master of everything and decides everything.
The Juche philosophical outlook on the world, next, is the viewpoint and attitude toward the world with man at the centre. The Juche philosophical outlook on the world clarifies that it is necessary to approach the world from the viewpoint of interests of man and deal with the change and development of the world focusing on man because man is dominator and transformer of the world. There have been various types of world outlooks in history, but there was none that indicated clearly the view of, and the viewpoint and stand on the world placing man at the centre. Even the materialists who in the past had regarded the world as a material object, to say nothing of the idealists who considered it as a world of ideas or spirit, could not put forward the view of, the viewpoint and approach towards the world with man at the centre. The preceding materialistic and dialectic outlook on the world of Marxism clarified scientifically that the world consists of matters, changing and developing continuously but never elucidated the view of, and the viewpoint and attitude toward the world with man at the centre. The Juche philosophical outlook on the world finds expression in being the man-centred philosophical outlook on the world. It newly raised the position and role of man in the world as the fundamental question; and is developed and systematized on its fundamental principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything. In this sense, it is different from all the preceding philosophical outlooks on the world.
Fundamental Philosophy of the Juche idea
The fundamental question of philosophy raised by the Juche idea is concerned with the position and role occupied and played by man in the world, the relationship between the world and man. General Secretary KIM JONG IL said: "Since the question of the world's origin had been made clear by the materialistic viewpoint, the Juche idea raised a new problem concerning the position and role of man in the world as the basic question of philosophy and gave an answer to the question of who is the master of the world." ("On the Juche Idea") In general, the fundamental question of philosophy is the most basic and starting one which should be solved primarily among many questions in establishing the outlook on the world. The fundamental principle of philosophy and the whole system and content of philosophy based on it differ in light of what kind of question is raised as the fundamental question and how it is solved. The fundamental question of philosophy newly raised by the Juche idea has two aspects. One is the question of the position occupied by man in the world and the other is the question of the role played by man in the transformation and development of the world. It is the fundamental question of philosophy that focuses on man in questioning as of whether man dominates the world or whether man is dominated by the world: and of what kind of role man plays in transforming and developing the world.
First, the fundamental question of philosophy that was newly raised by the Juche idea in conformity with the essence and mission of philosophy. Philosophy regards it as its fundamental mission to make contribution to shaping mans destiny by giving the outlook on the world. Since the fundamental question of philosophy raised by the Juche idea is not a simple question of man but the question of the relationship between the world and man, the question itself is aimed at giving an outlook on the world that clarifies the road ahead of shaping man's destiny. If we solve the question of relationship between the world and man, the question of the position and role of man in the world, we can clarify the man-centred view of the world that the world is dominated and transformed by man; and the viewpoint and stand on the world that should be maintained in dominating and transforming the world, giving a correct way-out in shaping his destiny to this end. Next, the fundamental question of philosophy newly raised by the Juche idea embodies correctly the lawful demand for developing the world outlook on the part of the humanity. In the far olden times people got free from mysterious fancies step by step through their practical struggle to conquer the world and shape their destinies. What was of primary was to cognize properly the World surrounding them. It was because they could not cognize their destinies nor shape them without the proper understanding of the world. Therefore, from the early period of the development of the philosophical outlook on the world people considered as the fundamental question of philosophy, the question of what is the origin of the world and the question of which is prior, matter or consciousness, in order to have a correct understanding of the world. The origin of the world is scientifically clarified by the Marxist materialistic and dialectic outlook on the world which elucidated that the world consists of matters and changes and develops continuously. However, this did not reach the final stage in the development of the outlook on the world. After the scientific elucidation that the world consists of matters and changes and develops continuously, it was raised as an important question to clarify correctly how man dominates the world in relationship with the world. This question can be made clear only when it is raised as the fundamental question of philosophy, the relationship between the world and man; and the position and role of man in the world and they are solved properly. It is the Juche idea that embodied the lawful requirement of the development of the world outlook and raised the position and role of man in the world as the fundamental question of philosophy. By doing so, the Juche idea renovated the fundamental question of philosophy. Next, the fundamental question of philosophy raised by the Juche idea reflects correctly the requirement of our time, the time of Juche.
The time of Juche in which the people's struggle for independence has been conducted in a more wide and diversified manner than ever before, needed the outlook on the world that enables the masses to shape their destinies independently and creatively with high awareness of being masters of their destinies. This is the question that can be only solved when the question of the position and role of man in the world is raised and given solution to. In meeting with this demand of the new era, the Juche idea raised newly the position and role of man in the world as the fundamental question of philosophy and solved it, thus providing a new starting point in the development of philosophical thoughts.
Philosophical Principle of the Juche idea
The philosophical principle of the Juche idea is that man is the master of everything and decides everything. In this context, General Secretary KIM JONG IL said: "The Juche idea raised the fundamental question of philosophy by regarding man as the main factor and elucidated the philosophical principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything." ("On the Juche Idea")
The whole system and contents of the Juche idea are on the basis of the principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything. This is why this principle is called the fundamental principle or the basic principle of the Juche idea. The philosophical principle of the Juche idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything gives an answer to the question of the relationship between the world and man in two aspects. The philosophical principle of the Juche idea clarifies first that man is the master of everything.
That man is the master of everything means that man is the master of the world and his destiny. This clarifies the position occupied by man who is the master of the world and his destiny. Man is a being that lives not being subordinated to the world but dominating the world in conformity with his independent demand and will. There are various types and kinds of material beings in the world but there is no such being as who lives while dominating the world. Even the lion that is called the "empire" in the forest as well as the shark called the "master" in the sea are not the beings that dominate the world for them to live. Although the lion eats other animals at his disposal, he is not such being as who dominates the world but the being who only adapts itself to the given circumstances. Man is the only being who lives dominating the world. The position of man as master of the world improves continuously through history. Man dominates the world through the struggles which continue generation after generation.
That man is the master of the world is, so to speak, that man is the master of his destiny. Since man is the master of the world, the world surrounding him cannot be the master of man's destiny. The master of man's destiny is man himself. The philosophical principle of the Juche idea clarifies next that man decides everything. That man decides everything means that man plays a decisive role in transforming the world and shaping his destiny. This clarifies the role played by man in the transformation and development of the world. Material and technical means and other various factors function in man's activities to transform the world. However, their functions depend on man.
Today science and technology develop, computers coordinate production process and robots manufacture trucks easily. But they are possible to be used only by the commands and programmes made by man. In this sense, even up-to-date technical devices cannot replace the role of man and therefore, it is man who plays the decisive role in transforming the world. Through the historical process of transforming the world, man improves his strength and wisdom and transforms and develops continuously the world at a higher level. That man plays decisive role in transforming the world is, so to speak, that man plays decisive role in shaping his destiny. Since mans destiny is shaped through the process of transforming and developing the world and man plays the decisive role in the transformation and development of the world, there can be no other beings in the world that decide mans destiny. Mans destiny depends on how active he is in transforming the world. Like this the philosophical principle of the Juche idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything is the most scientific and revolutionary principle that reflects correctly the demand of the world in which man lives, and gives a correct answer to the question of man's destiny.
Juche viewpoint on the world
The Juche viewpoint on the world is that the world is dominated and transformed by man. In this connection General Secretary KIM JONG IL said: "That the world is dominated and reshaped by man is a new viewpoint on the world in relation to man." ("On the Juche Idea") This means, briefly, that nature and society become the world for many thanks to the independent and creative activities of man. Nature is dominated and reshaped by man. Things and phenomena of nature which have caused great damages upon mans existence and development become material conditions for serving man thanks to his creative cognitive and practical activities. And things and phenomena which used not to serve man in a direct way are now made use of as means of production and living data for man. This tells that nature is dominated and reshaped by man. Society is also dominated and transformed by man. In human history the social system that infringed upon people s independence have changed into the social system that guarantees his independence by the people's active struggle. In particular, the working class and other broad working masses liquidated the exploiter society and established the socialist society, thus developing society more purposefully and consciously in conformity with their will and demand as masters of state power and means of production. That the world is dominated by man does not mean that man dominates the entire vast world. There are still many sectors which are not dominated by man in practice. However, the scope of man's domination over the world expands continuously in accordance with the improvement of his independence, creativity and consciousness. That the world is transformed by man does not mean that all changes in the world are made by man. All things and phenomena in the world have their own characteristics and change and develop in accordance with certain laws. People can transform the world in conformity with their demand only when they understand and apply these laws correctly. After all, that the world is transformed by man does not mean that all changes in the world are made by man but that man plays the decisive role in transforming and developing the world.
The law is that the world is developed by the volitional action and role of man in the direction of serving man and in accordance with the development of man. In this connection, General Secretary KIM JONG IL said: "The material nature of the world and its universal laws of motion having been clarified, the Juche idea presented the position and role of man in the world as the fundamental question of philosophy and proved that man is the master of everything and decides everything. It explicated on this basis the law that governs the domination, transformation and development of the world by man." The law of domination, transformation and development of the world by man clarified by the Juche idea is that the world is developed by the volitional action and role of man. That the world is developed by volitional action and role of man is the law that clarifies the main factor in dominating, transforming and developing the world. That the world is dominated, transformed and developed by volitional action and role of man means that this is done by the independent, creative and conscious activities of man. The volitional action and role of man over the world is the process of activities to dominate and transform the world, which is, in essence, the independent, creative and conscious activities of man. With his independent, creative and conscious activities man transforms the world ceaselessly in conformity with his own demands. This finds its clear expression in the fact that nature and society are transformed in conformity with his interests only by his active role.
The Juche viewpoint of the law of domination, transformation and development of the world by man is that the world develops in the direction of serving man. That the world develops in the direction of serving man is the law that clarifies the main direction of domination, transformation and development of the world by man. That the world develops in the direction of serving man means, briefly, that the world is transformed in the direction of realizing mans independence more wonderfully. As long as the fundamental purpose of mans activity is to realize his independence and his activity for independence is deepened continuously, it is inevitable that the world develops more and more in the direction of serving man. That the world develops in the direction of realizing independence of man can find its concrete expression in the fact that fields and targets of nature and society are continuously expanded to serve man. The Juche viewpoint of domination, transformation and development of the world by man is, next, that the world develops in accordance with the development of man. That the world develops in accordance with the development of man is the law that clarifies the feature of transformation and development of the world by man.
That the world develops in accordance with the development of man is that the development of the world is accelerated in accordance with the development of independence, creativity and consciousness. The acceleration of domination, transformation and development of the world depends on the degree of man's development and the developing standard of man's independence, creativity and consciousness. Therefore, the development of the world is further accelerated in accordance with the development of man's independence, creativity and consciousness and the strengthening of his activity. That the world develops in accordance with the development of man can find its clear expression in the fact that the transformation and development of nature and society is rapidly made in accordance with the development of man independence, creativity and consciousness.
Sun of Juche
From olden times people have likened the most sacred and greatest thing to the sun. The sun provides the earth with the light, heat and gravity necessary to support life in the universe. President KIM IL SUNG (April 15, 1912-July 8 1994) in Korea is in high esteem of humankind as the Sun. President KIM IL SUNG lighted up the road mankind would follow with the Juche idea. The Juche idea is a theory that reflects in a correct way the demand of a social being to live and develop as a master of his own destiny and the world shows the right way to its realization. The idea explains that independence is the most important attribute of man and the life and blood of the popular masses the country and people. All kinds of revolutionary struggles are for the sake of independence.
The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG founded the Juche idea with independence as its kernel. This was the most important philosophical discovery among the famous discoveries by human intelligence in the past and a historical event that brought about a radical change in the struggle to develop human ideas and to hew out the destiny of the popular masses.
The Juche idea is an original revolutionary and political philosophy and a scientific man-centerd outlook on the world. Man as a social being wants to live and develop independently and creatively. The Juche idea was founded and developed correctly based on the aspiration and demand. It thus became a great idea that gripped the hearts of all people, the engine in the progress of history, the lever to move the earth and the ideological beacon to guide the era.
The validity, truth and vitality of the Juche idea made it wide spread all across the world, greatly encouraging mankind in the struggle for independence. With its profundity and universality and its encyclopedic and revolutionary characters, the Juche idea greatly influences the transformation of the ideological and mental life of mankind and of the world while making a powerful stimulus to the development of the revolutionary movement in the independence era.
Under the light of the Juche idea the working masses that had remained unenlightened came to be confident of their strength and turned out in the struggle to carve their own destiny free from all manner of domination and subjugation. So small wonder that the President is praised as the sun of Juche.
The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG established the Korean-style socialism based on the Juche idea. This enables the progressive people to expect their bright future. The cherished desire of mankind is to lead an equal life free from domination and subjugation, exploitation and oppression. People had long aspired after such a society. The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG just translated their aspiration into reality.
On the basis of the Juche idea the Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG built up the unique socialism in Korea. He applied Juche-based mode of politics and materialization the single-hearted unity of the whole society. Consequently the Korean-style socialism has been consolidated as an impregnable bulwark of socialism that is immortal.
Socialism established by the Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG is absolutely the people-centered socialist society where everything serves the popular masses and which advances by force of their united strength. Its fundamental aim is to resolutely defend the independence of the popular masses and to completely meet their independence demand. In Korea all members of the society assume the position of master in all fields of politics the economy and culture and enjoy a worthwhile life. No wonder that the Korean people liken their socialism to their lifeline and readily sacrifice even their lives for the sake of the socialism. Socialism is the lifeline of the Korean people and the Juche idea is that of the Korean-style socialism. The Korea-style socialism is based just on the Juche idea and embodies it in itself. This is why the Korean-style socialism is regarded as the most rational and superior one that accords with the independent aspiration of the world’s people.
Socialism is the future of mankind. It is the law of historical development that mankind advances toward socialism. At the end of last century socialism collapsed in many countries. Then the imperialists tried in every way to stifle the socialism of Korea. Still, the banner of socialism is flying over the earth. The socialism of Korea imbues mankind with confident hope for its future. Socialist Korea has steadily advanced along the road of Juche through the storms of history. This will greatly encourages the revolutionaries of the world.
“The future of mankind lies in socialism advance toward socialism” This slogan can be heard in South America that was called a quiet yard at the back of united states in the past. The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG who indicated the way to be followed by mankind and illuminated its bright future will be remembered as the Sun of juche, the sun of mankind , for ever.
The DPRK is an independent socialist state which incorporates the Juche idea in all aspects of state-building and state activities - politics, the economy, military affairs, cultural life and external relations. This independent state has been constructed and developed by the Korean people by their own efforts, in their own way, according to their own ideology and faith, and by dint of their revolutionary determination and will inspired and led by two great revolutionary leaders who have guaranteed the continuity of the Juche line of independence across the generations. The DPRK now stands invincible in the face of all provocation, and consistently prevails against attempts to deflect the Korean revolution from its course. Neither imperialism nor any other outside force has ever succeeded in any such attempt. The Korean people have overcome unbelievable hardships and made untold sacrifices to defend and guarantee their revolution and, from generation to generation, have taken up the revolution as their own, as a struggle to realize their own independence. As a result, the DPRK stands as a people-centred socialist state, dignified, highly respected and prestigious, a beacon of independence for the oppressed people, nations, and countries of the entire world. This achievement has shown up the pernicious consequences of relying on outside forces for success. Instead, Korea’s revolutionaries have consistently repudiated great-power worship, and have never relied on dogmas, received theories and formulas developed from outside. Their watchword has always been: “Let us live our own way!”. They have, in short, seen it as a matter of pride and honour that they have waged their revolution and carried out their construction regardless of what others may say, secure in their conviction that they alone can know the situation in their country and forge their revolutionary path in accordance to their own circumstances.
The lifeline of the Korean people in pursuing this independent path is to defend and uphold the Juche character and national character of the revolution. Independence is the lifeblood of a country, a nation and a people, and is, accordingly, the lifeblood of the revolution, since the revolutionary struggle is waged with the country and nation as the unit. No supra-national bloc or alliance can replace the masses’ independence struggle; this is a bitter lesson of the history of socialism, and the DPRK is a living and inspiring example for socialists and all progressive people throughout the world of the alternative path - the path of independence.
This is all the more impressive an achievement in that imperialism has used its most cruel weapon of partition against the Korean people, so that, while defending and constructing socialism in the north, they are faced with the complex and demanding task of struggling for the reunification of their divided nation. The challenges faced by the independent socialist state of the DPRK have in recent times been daunting indeed, but by developing the revolutionary line of Songun politics - the line of putting military affairs first - Comrade KIM JONG IL has led the Korean people in facing down all threats from outside in a dangerous situation of actual military confrontation with imperialism. Only a people of iron faith and will, united as one around such a seasoned and experienced leader, could have achieved such historic success.
Since it is the masses of the people in each country and nation who are those who wage the revolution, the crucial factor in its success is that the people take up the revolution as their own and wage it independently and creatively. The DPRK accordingly embodies love for the masses of the people, in accordance with its guiding ideology of the Juche idea. In Korea, socialism has a new ideological basis, as a people-centred social system, in which the people are God, in the sense that their noble attributes of independence and creativity stand above all other considerations in ideology and even in philosophy. This is the man-centred outlook on the world - the outlook according to which all matters in nature, society and human affairs are approached from the point of view of man, that is, the masses of the people. As social scientists, it is our task to study and propagate the Juche idea in order to show the way to the independence of the masses in our own country. This is a difficult task in this, the oldest colonialist country, where the poisonous ideas of chauvinism, racism, and prejudice have been used for centuries to corrode, corrupt and infest the consciousness of the people and divert them from the struggle for social independence and internationalism. The Juche idea is our ultimate guarantee that here also we shall eventually succeed in sweeping away this filth and muck of the capitalist and imperialist outlook, and light the flame of independent and creative struggle of the masses, so that they take up revolutionary struggle
As their own.
The Juche character and national identity are the independence and lifeline of a country, a nation and the masses of the people. The struggle of the masses for independence is waged with the country and nation as a unit, so the party, the government and the masses of each country should conduct the revolution and construction independently and creatively as masters. It is only when they hold fast to the Juche character and national identity and maintain the line of independence in the revolution and construction that they can defend the sovereignty of the country and nation, guarantee their independent development and realize the independence of the masses successfully.
Having put forward such original ideas on the Juche character, the national identity and the line of independence for the first time in history, President Kim Il Sung blazed the trail for the independent development of the Korean revolution and guaranteed, by dint of his iron faith and will and seasoned leadership, that the principle of Juche, the line of independence, was maintained consistently in the revolution and construction. True to his idea of State building, our Party and State regarded preserving the Juche character, the national identity and the line of independence as the fundamental principle in accomplishing the cause of the masses’ independence, the cause of socialism, and strictly adhered to it, and thus built our country into a highly dignified and prestigious independent country, a socialist State embodying noble love for the people and nation. We have solved all the problems arising in the building and activities of the State and in the revolution and construction by our own efforts and in our own way on the principle of self-reliance, in accordance with our ideology and faith, our determination and will and the actual situation in our country, and in line with the interests of our revolution. By holding fast to the principle of Juche, the principle of independence, in all fields of politics, the economy, military affairs, culture and external relations, we have resolutely opposed great-power worship, dogmatism and all other ideas advocating dependence on outside forces, and categorically rejected any form of intervention and pressure by the imperialist reactionaries and other foreign forces.
President KIM IL SUNG : Eternal Sun of Juche
Millions of years have passed since the beginning of human history. There are many great men who left their names in history. History, however, has not recorded such a peerless great man as the Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG. President KIM IL SUNG was the peerlessly great man born with an admirable disposition that nobody can match with him in terms of ideo-theoritical wisdom, leadership and virtue. President KIM IL SUNG was an outstanding great man who personified all quality and disposition of a great man on the highest level. He was a great philosopher, statesman and military strategist and leader who led the 20th century to victory with his outstanding idea, theory and wise leadership. President KIM IL SUNG left the best legacy such as great idea, feasts and moral virtue.
The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG is, really, a legendary hero, the President is immortal and the President is immortal in the hearts of the humanity for his great idea, feats and virtue, leader KIM JONG IL once said. A great man, who originated a guiding idea of the times, enjoys immortality with the times.
The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG is a prominent leader who fathered the Juche idea, a guiding idea of the independent age that enables the popular masses to shape their destiny. He, who enlightened the popular masses to carve their destiny by themselves by originating the Juche idea, is immortal with the victorious advance of the independent era.
The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG who embarked on the road of the revolution in his teens led the two revolutionary wars against Japanese and US imperialists, the two-stage social revolution, the anti-imperialist, anti-feudal democratic revolution, and the two reconstruction projects after Korea’s liberation from the Japanese colonial rule and the Korean War and the several stages of socialists construction to victory. His great feats achieved in all fields of politics, the economy, culture and defense are a precious treasure and noble inheritance of the Korean and world people.
President KIM IL SUNG, who personified “the people are my God” as his political philosophy, is the great father of the Korean nation devoted his whole life for the nation and humankind with love for the people, country and humankind. The Great Leader President KIM IL SUNG enjoys immortality thanks to his idea, exploits and virtue. President KIM IL SUNG will be immortal as long as the universe and humankind exist.
“As a historian, I knew Great men with the world history.”
However, I do not know such a great man as President KIM IL SUNG who was prominent in terms of idea, personality and virtue and is immortal in the hearts of the humankind as the sun of the era even after his demise. The world keeps advance indicated by President KIM IL SUNG’s Juche idea. Having President KIM IL SUNG in high esteem as the eternal sun of Juche is the greatest pride and happiness for the world people,” said an European historian. President KIM IL SUNG is the eternal sun of Juche who sheds bright rays on the Korean nation and the world people as he did in the past.
Respected Comrade KIM IL SUNG was a Great Leader, acclaimed and venerated as the such by our people for the first time in Korea's history of 5,000 years. He was the greatest of great men, the incarnation of all the best values and qualifications a great man must possess.
The Great Leader created the great Juche idea after acquiring a deep insight into the requirements of a new era when the oppressed and humiliated masses of the people became masters of their own destiny. Thus he developed their struggle for independence onto a higher plane and opened up the age of Juche, a new era in the development of human history.
The history of the Workers Party of Korea is precisely the history of respected Comrade KIM IL SUNG's great revolutionary activities. The Great Leader Comrade KIM IL SUNG was the founder of the DPRK and the father of socialist Korea, and he is the eternal President of State. President KIM IL SUNG built our People's Army into a prototype of a revolutionary army and laid eternal foundations for its development by thoroughly applying the principles and ways he had put forward for the building of Juche-type revolutionary armed forces. He built the People's Army into an army of the Party and the leader, a genuine army of the people, and developed it as an armed unit of ideology and faith, possessed of all the politico-ideological traits required of a revolutionary army.
Under the leadership of President KIM IL SUNG the ever-victorious and iron-willed brilliant commander, our soldiers and people turned out as one in the just Fatherland Liberation War and fought in a self-sacrificing manner, giving a full demonstration of their unparalleled mass heroism at the front and in the rear. Consequently, they defeated the US aggressor armed forces that had been boasting of being the mightiest in the world, defended the freedom and independence of their country with honor, encouraged the oppressed peoples of the world in their anti-imperialist national liberation struggle, and made a great contribution to safeguarding world peace.
The idea and line of giving importance to force of arms and military affairs, advanced and consistently maintained by President KIM IL SUNG, constitute the basis and starting point of our Party's Songun politics. Great Leader Comrade KIM IL SUNG regarded the people as his god. He dearly loved the people, firmly believed in them, and gave his all for their freedom and happiness, undergoing hardships and sufferings on their behalf throughout his life.
Great Leader Comrade KIM IL SUNG is the sun of nation and the lodestar of national reunification. He devoted all his life to the country and nation and made imperishable achievements in the cause of national reunification. As a veteran of world statesmanship, respected Comrade KIM IL SUNG gave strength and confidence to the world's progressive people in their fight for independence, and made an imperishable contribution to the cause of human independence.